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PSY101, Week 4 Notes

by: Claudia Irizarry

PSY101, Week 4 Notes PSY 101

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Claudia Irizarry

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Weekly Notes
Introductory Psychology
Larry Hawk
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Claudia Irizarry on Sunday February 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 101 at University at Buffalo taught by Larry Hawk in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 84 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at University at Buffalo.


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Date Created: 02/21/16
Claudia A. Irizarry PSY 101 Chapter 4 Sensation and Perception MyPsychLab 3rd Edition Psychology and Week 4 Hawk Lecture Notes  illusion­ perception in which the way we perceive a stimulus doesn’t match its physical reality  sensation­ detection of physical energy by sense organs, which then send information to the brain perception­ the brain’s interpretation of raw sensory inputs transduction­ the process of converting an external energy or substance into electrical activity  within neurons sense receptor­ specialized cell responsible for converting external stimuli into neural activity for a specific sensory system sensory adaptation­ activation is greatest when a stimulus is first detected absolute threshold­ lowest level of a stimulus needed for the nervous system to detect a change  50% of the time.  just noticeable difference (JND) the smallest change in the intensity of a stimulus that we can  detect  weber’s law ­ there is a constant proportional relationship between the JND and original stimulus intensity  psychophysics­ the study of how we perceive sensory stimuli based on their physical  characteristics  signal detection theory ­ theory regarding how stimuli are detected under different conditions response biases ­tendencies to make one type of guess over another when we’re in doubt about  whether a weak signal is present or absent under noisy conditions doctrine of specific nerve energies­ proposed by Johannes Muller, even though there are many  distinct stimulus energies like light, sound, touch, the sensation we experience is determined by  the nature of the sense receptor, not the stimulus synesthesia­ a condition in which people experience cross modal sensations selective attention­ process of selecting one sensory channel and ignoring or minimizing others  Donald Broadbent’s filter theory of attention views attention as a bottleneck effect through  which info passes.  He tested this theory with dichotic listening ­participants hear two different messages, one  delivered to the left ear and one to the right ear Cocktail party effect­ ability to pick out an important message in a conversation that doesn’t  involve us inattentional blindness­ failure to detect stimuli that are in plain sight when our attention is  focused elsewhere. ­daniel simons christopher chabris have people count number of passes basketball swinging back and forth, then lady in gorilla suit appears for nine seconds change blindness­ a failure to detect obvious changes in one’s environment binding problem­ our minds somehow seamlessly combine these visual cues into a unified  perception of a scene hue­ color of light visible light has a wavelength in hundreds of nanometers  our perception of an object’s brightness is influenced directly by intensity of reflected light that  reaches our eyes we’re maximally attuned to three primary colors of light: blue green and red additive color mixing­ mixing of varying amounts of these three colors subtractive color mixing­ mixing of colored pigments in paint or ink  eye: sclera­ white of the eye iris­ colored part; controls how much light enters our eye pupil­ circular hole through which light enters the eye cornea­part of eye containing transparent cells that focus light on the retina eye muscle retina­membrane at the back of the eye responsible for converting light into neural activity optic nerve lens­part of the eye that changes curvature to keep mages in focus fovea­ central portion of retina rods­ receptor cells in the retina allowing us to see in low levels of light acuity­ sharpness of vision dark adaptation dilation of pupil  different types of receptor cells contain photopigments, chemicals that change following  exposure to light ganglion cells in retinal circuit that contain axons, bundle all their axons together and depart the  eye to reach the brain optic nerve­ contains axons of ganglion cells, travels from retina to rest of brain blind spot­ part of the visual field we can’t see because of an absence of rods and cones cones­ receptor cells in the retina allowing us to see in color simple cells­ display yes no responses to specific orientation complex cells­ responses less restricted to one location. more advanced than simple cells feature detection­ our ability to use certain minimal patterns to identify objects feature detector cells­ cell that detects lines and edges trichromatic theory­ idea that color vision is based on our sensitivity to three primary colors color blindness­ inability to see some/all colors trichromats­ us and three primitive relatives possess three kinds of cones opponent process theory­ we perceive colors in terms of three pairs of opponent cells; red/green,  blue/yellow, black/white echolocation­ animals determine their distance from a wall or barrier visual agnosia­ deficit in perceiving objects audition­our sense of hearing  sound is a vibration kind of mechanical energy traveling through a medium, usually air sounds have pitch­frequency of a wave amplitude (height) of soundwave corresponds to loudness­ measured in decibels outer ear­ consists of the pinna (part we see, flabby skin) and ear canal has simplest function  funneling sound waves onto eardrum middle ear­ contains ossicles (three tiniest bones in body hammer anvil stirrup)vibrate at  frequency of sound inner ear, cochlea (bony) converts vibration into neural activity cochlea­ bony, spiral shaped sense organ used for hearing timbre­ complexity or quality of sound that makes musical instruments, human voices, or other  sources sound unique organ of Corti­ tissue containing the hair cells necessary for hearing basilar membrane­ membrane supporting the organ of Corti and hair cells in the cochlea place theory­ specific place along the basilar membrane matches a tone with a specific pitch frequency theory­ rate at which neurons fire the action potential reproduces the pitch  volley theory­ variation of frequency theory that works for tones between 100­5000 hz Conductive deafness­ damage of the auditory nerve loud sounds for a long period of time can damage hair cells and lead to noise induced hearing  loss olfaction­sense of smell gustation­sense of taste odors­ airborne chemicals that interact with receptors in lining of our nasal passages taste buds­ sense receptor in the tongue that responds to sweet, salty sour, bitter, umami, and  perhaps fat pheromone­ odorless chemical that serve as a social signal to members of one’s species 2 million Americans suffer from disorders of taste, smell, both somatosensory­ our sense of touch, temperature, and pain proprioception ­kinesthetic sense vestibular sense­ sense of equilibrium or balance free nerve endings­  gate control model­ idea that pain is blocked or gated from consciousness by neural mechanisms  in spinal cord phantom pain­ pain or discomfort felt in an amputated limb proprioception­ (kinesthetic sense) our sense of body position mirror box­ creative treatment for phantom limb pain pain insensitivity vestibular sense­  our sense of equilibrium or balance semicircular canals­ three fluid filled canals in the inner ear responsible for our sense of balance human factors­ optimizes technology to better suit our sensory and perceptual capabilities ergonomic­ worker friendly parallel processing­ ability to attend to many sense modalities simultaneously bottom up processing­ processing in which a whole is constructed from parts top­down processing­ conceptually driven processing influenced beliefs and expectancies perceptual set­ set formed when expectations influence perception perceptual constancy­ the process by which we perceive stimuli consistently across varied  conditions size constancy­ our ability to perceive objects as the same size no matter how far away from us color constancy­ ability to perceive color consistently across different levels of lighting subjective contours­ our brains often provide missing information about outlines gestalt principles­ rules governing how we perceive objects as wholes within their overall  context  1. proximity ­objects physically close to each other tend to be perceived as unified wholes 2. similarity­ all things being equal 3. continuity­ we still perceive objects as wholes, even if other objects block part of them 4. closure­ when partial visual info is present, our brains fill in what’s missing 5. symmetry­ we perceive objects that are symmetrically arranged as wholes more often  than those that aren’t 6. figure­ground­ make instantaneous decisions to focus attention on what we believe to be  the central figure, and largely ignore what we believe to be the background Rubin’s vase illusion­ bistable image (perceive in 2 ways) ­emergence­ perceptual gestalt that almost jumps out from the page and hits us all at once phi phenomenon­ (by Max Wertheimer) illusory perception of movement produced by the  successive flashing of images motion blindness­ serious disorder where patients can’t seamlessly string images processed by  brains into perception of ongoing motion depth perception­ ability to judge distance and 3d relations monocular depth cues­ stimuli that enable us to judge depth using only one eye *relative size *texture gradient *interposition *linear perspective *height in plane *light and shadow binocular depth cues­ stimuli that enable us to judge depth using both eyes *binocular disparity *binocular convergence  Cues help in localizing sounds moon illusion­ illusion that appears larger when it’s near horizon than in the sky ames room illusion­ distorted room trapezoidal, relative size principles muller lyer illusion ­line of identical length appears longer next to identical with arrows outward ponzo illusion ­ railroad tracks illusion; converging lines enclose 2 objects of identical size  perceive object closer to converging lines as larger horizontal vertical illusion­ perceive vertical part of upside down t as long than horizontal part ebbinghaus titchener illusion­ perceive a circle as larger when surrounded by smaller circles and  smaller when surrounded by larger circles visual cliff­ checker table and floor, can judge depth when crawl subliminal perception­ perception below the limen or threshold of conscious awareness subliminal persuasion­ subthreshold influences over our votes in elections; product choices and  life decisions. extrasensory perception­ perception of events outside the known channels of sensation parapsychologists investigators who study esp & related psychic phenomena   ganzfeld technique in which experimenter covers participants eyes with goggles that look like  the halves of ping pong balls to create  uniform visual field when a red floodlight is directed  toward the eyes  Illusory correlation­ we attend to and recall events that are striking coincidences and ignore or  forget events that aren't  Multiple end points­ psychics predictions do open ended that they're consistent with almost any  conceivable set of outcomes Cold reading ­ art of persuading people we've just met that we now all about them


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