Week 5-Behavioral neuroscience
Week 5-Behavioral neuroscience PSYC 4183-001
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Celine Notetaker on Sunday February 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 4183-001 at University of Arkansas taught by Nathan Parks in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 55 views. For similar materials see Behavioral Neuroscience in Psychlogy at University of Arkansas.
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Date Created: 02/21/16
Behavioral Neuroscience Week 5 th Thursay, Feb. 18 Functional Neuroanatomy Afferent- A neuron or Axon that projects from the periphery to the CNS (input) Efferent – a neuron or axon hat projects from the CNS to the periphery (output) A stimulus acts on a receptor which sends the signal along the afferent neuron (pseudo unipolar neuron) where it reaches the spinal cord it goes through the inter neuron travels through the efferent neuron where it reaches the Effector and performs a response White part of spinal cord = white matter= part of the tissue where there is a high density of axons going from one place to another Yellow part of spinal cord = gray matter= dendrites and cell bodies of cells Anatomical directions Brain Dorsal= through the top of the head, Ventral = toward the bottom of the head Anterior= towards the forehead Posterior= toward the back of the head Spinal cord Dorsal= towards the back Ventral = towards the chest Anterior= towards the head region Posterior= towards the feet ** if you were crawling on all fours with your head lifted so that you were staring parallel to the floor, then the directions of the brain and the spinal cord will align to be the same Medial= towards the middle Lateral= towards the surface Planes of section Mid-Sagittal- A plane as if you cut down the middle as if to make two symmetrical halves Horizontal - a plane as if you cut to separate the top and bottom of the brain Coronal- A plane as if you cut to separate the front and back part of the brain Ipsilateral: On the same hemisphere of the brain Contralateral- on the opposite hemisphere of the brain EXAMPLE: the right hemisphere controls the left arm so your arm is contralateral CONTRALATERAL ORGANIZATION: Each hemisphere is “in charge” of the opposite side of the body or space -if there was damage in the left part of the occipital lobe you could be blind to the “right space” but not necessarily in your right eye since it is fully functioning Absolute brain size does not correlate with intelligence what correlates best to intelligence is the brain to body ratio, but even that is somewhat crude Embryonic divisions of the CNS Forebrain= Telencephalon + diencephalon Midbrain= Mesencephalon Hindbrain= Metencephalon + Myelencephalon These are derived/named based on the embryonic brain structure Meninges & Ventricles Meninges are a set of membranes that line and cover the brain and spinal cord to protect it and fuse it to the skull - They serve a protective function Structure: 3 layers of meninges 1. Dura “hard mother”= thick, durable outer layer 2. Arachnoid “spider like” = spongy, fibrous middle layer 3. Pia “soft mother” = delicate bottom layer that containes blood vessels. Attaches to the brain and spinal cord - Sub arachnoid space= Empty space within the arachnoid membrane o Filled with cerebrospinal fluid (takes up the space between the arachnoid and the pia) MEMORY TIP! meninge layers Durable (Dura) Spiders (Arachnoid) Pounce (Pia) Ventricles are cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) filled cavities in the brain - Lateral ventricles (1&2) - Third ventricle - Fourth ventricle These ventricles are all interconnected and things are being exchanged between them through the blood stream. Choroid plexus: formed by a set of glial cells called ependymal cells which produce the CSF in the brain. - The choroid plexus is found in each of the four ventricles Spinal cord Dorsal root= The sensory afferent to the CNS. All the sensory information enters through here Dorsal root ganglion: Contains the soma of sensory afferents Ventral root= Motor efferents; project to muscles. All motor output leaves the spinal cord enters via this route. Central Canal: a hole in the middle of the spinal cord= an empty space that is a fluid filled cavity that extends down the length of the spinal cord Hind brain = Medulla, Pons, and Cerebellum Medulla: contains nuclei that control life-supporting functions such as respiration and cardiovascular regulation - Also contains nuclei that relays and supports sensory function (hearing, touch, taste) - A lot of important neurons and their axons pass through the medulla: o EX= motor fibers which originate from the cerebral cortex pass through the medulla to the spinal cord
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