GEN 3000: Week 6 Notes
GEN 3000: Week 6 Notes 85033 - GEN 3000 - 002
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85033 - GEN 3000 - 002
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lisa Blackburn on Sunday February 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 85033 - GEN 3000 - 002 at Clemson University taught by Kate Leanne Willingha Tsai in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Fundamental Genetics in Biomedical Sciences at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 02/21/16
Key Terms Important People Key Topics Chapter 9: DNA Structure and Analysis 1. Key Terms: a. Nucleotide: Basic component of DNA. Consists of a sugar, phosphate, and a DNA base. b. Tetranucleotide Theory: DNA has only four bases that are in a fixed sequence (base pairing) and of equal amounts. c. Nitrogenous Bases of DNA: the bases of DNA consist of Adenine, Thymine, Guanine, and Cytosine. i. Chargaff’s Rule: Adenine always bonds with Thymine. Guanine bonds with Cytosine. Disproves Tetranucleotide theory. ii. Nitrogenous Bases of RNA: the bases of RNA consist of Adenine, Uracil, Guanine, and Cytosine. (Uracil replaces Thymine) d. Transforming Principle: Early name for DNA. At this time, they did not know that DNA is what held genetic information. However, they knew that something could transform one type of bacteria into another. e. Ribose Sugar: The sugar of RNA. Consists of an Oxygen that is paired to a Hydrogen in the ring. f. Deoxyribose Sugar: The sugar of DNA. Does not contain an Oxygen paired to a Hydrogen in the ring. (Removes the Oxygen) g. Nucleoside: Consists of a sugar and a base. h. Purine: A nitrogenous base that has two rings and is bigger in size. Consists of Adenine and Guanine. i. Pyrimidine: A nitrogenous base that only has a single ring and is smaller in size. Consists of Cytosine, Thymine, and Uracil. j. Phosphate Group: part of a nucleotide. Gives DNA a negative charge. Consists of a phosphate surrounded by oxygen. i. Monophosphate: is when a single phosphate group is attached to a sugar. k. Phosphodiester Bonds: The bond between a phosphate group and a sugar on the outside part of a strand of DNA (the “backbone”) l. Antiparallel: DNA strands run in opposite directions, parallel but flipped in direction. m. Hydrophilic: water loving n. Hydrophobic: water fearing o. Alpha Helix: DNA is a right handed/clockwise spiral. The outside wraps around to protect the bases. Wraps, does not twist. 2. Important People: a. Levene: proposed the Tetranucleotide Theory b. Kossel: determined that DNA has nitrogenous bases. c. Griffith: Proposed the Transforming Principle. d. Avery, Macleod, and McCarty: isolated the transforming bacteria. Determined thatDNA is the “Transforming Principle” in bacteria. Destroyed each component (RNA, DNA, and proteins) to determine what component is the transforming principle. If the type of bacteria doesn’t change when a component is destroyed, then this is what transforms the bacteria. They conducted their experiment with pneumonia. e. Hershey and Chase: conducted tests to determine what is the transforming principle of viruses, proteins or DNA? Resulted in them determining that DNA is the transforming principle in viruses. They conducted their experiment with a T2 Bacteriophage and E. coli. f. Chargaff: isolated DNA and determined the base pairing of DNA, called Chargaff’s Rule. Disproved Tetranucleotide Theory. g. Rosalind Franklin: used X-rays to take photographs of DNA through crystallography. The photo she took had a pattern that was used to determine the structure of DNA. h. Watson and Crick: Franklin’s data was key in their research. They were able to build a model of DNA. 3. Key Topics: a. Properties of Genetic Material (before it was determined to be DNA): i. Must be able to replicate faithfully: not a lot of mistakes are made in replication, needs a robust system ii. Encodes and stores complex information: has a lot of information on how to make a whole organism based on genetic material inside a single cell. iii. Contains enough material to create phenotypes: must hold information and know when to use this information to create different phenotypes/structures. Example: a gene to create a heart lies within only a heart cell. iv. Contains variations as a result of mutations: changes can take place over time, even though it is a faithful system, to allow for different phenotypes. b. Tetranucleotide Theory: At the time of this discovery, scientists did not know if genetic material was within proteins or DNA. Upon this discovery, it was believed that DNA was too simplistic to allow for all of the known properties to be genetic material. Since there was only four different types of bases, it seemed not able to be complex enough. This theory made the scientific world lean to proteins as having genetic material. c. Transforming Principle: Griffith i. Used a strain of bacteria that caused pneumonia. A virulent strain has a smooth coat (lethal strain). An avirulent strain has a rough/lack of coat (nonlethal strain). ii. Noticed that if a mouse gets the lethal smooth strain that is killed by heat, the mouse does not die. iii. Noticed that if a mouse gest a mixture of lethal smooth strain and nonlethal rough strain, the mouse dies. iv. Determines that something in the mixture “transforms” the rough strain into a smooth strain, making the mouse die. (Transforming Principle) d. The Work of Avery, Macleod, and McCarty: dealing with genetic information and bacteria i. Took the filtrate of lethal smooth strain (knew that something of this part is what the transformation principle) and destroyed individual components to determine what the transformation principle is. ii. Destroyed the RNA within the filtrate with RNase. Put the filtrate in with the nonlethal rough strain. The outcome resulted in a mixture of the lethal smooth strain and the nonlethal rough strain. Death of mouse. iii. Destroyed the proteins within the filtrate with protease. Put the filtrate in with the nonlethal rough strain. The outcome resulted in a mixture of the lethal smooth strain and the nonlethal rough strain. Death of mouse. iv. Destroyed the DNA within the filtrate with DNase. Put the filtrate in with the nonlethal rough strain. The outcome resulted in only the nonlethal rough strain. The mouse lives. v. Conclusion: DNA is the transforming principle, or in other words, contains the genetic information. e. The Work of Hershey and Chase: Dealing with genetic material and viruses. i. Knows that something happens within a cell to allow for replication of a virus and then the release of the virus to be able to infect more cells. What is it that causes this, proteins or DNA? ii. Proteins have sulfur in them and DNA has phosphorus in it. iii. Took the virus and labeled the sulfur/phosphorus of the protein/DNA to be radioactive. Allowed for the viruses to infect an unlabeled nonradioactive E. coli cell. Let the virus multiple and then blended. Placed in a centrifuge, heavy portion will go on the bottom while the lighter portion goes on top. 1. For protein/sulfur: the radioactivity was on top within the protein coats and not in the phage that was reproduced. 2. For DNA/phosphorous: the radioactivity was on the bottom with the phage that was reproduced and not on top with the protein coats. iv. Conclusion: DNA is what makes the next generation of viruses, therefore, it contains genetic material. f. RNA and Tobacco Virus: i. RNA can also hold genetic information. ii. RNA is surrounded by proteins. Strain A: contains A RNA and A protein. Strain B: contains B RNA and B protein. iii. Washed off the proteins from the RNA. (proteins will rewrap RNA). Took the A RNA and placed the B proteins around it and vice versa for B RNA. iv. Then infected tobacco with the switched strains. The progeny consisted of A RNA with A protein and B RNA with B proteins. v. Conclusion: RNA contains genetic information g. Eukaryotic Evidence: to support that DNA contains genetic information i. This is indirect evidence. ii. UV light causes mutations in heredity, meaning it can change heredity components. iii. Whatever is absorbing the UV light at a certain wavelength is what is being mutated (is what contains the genetic information) iv. Nucleic acids and proteins both absorb UV light, but nucleic acid absorbs UV light at the same wavelength that UV light causes genetic mutations. v. Conclusion: DNA contains genetic information. h. The Work of Chargaff: how he determined Chargaff’s rule i. Looked at the ratios of nitrogenous bases of different organisms. Noticed a 1:1 ratio in E. coli. ii. Noticed that the ratio changes for each organism. 1. Conclusion: Tetranucleotide Theory cannot be true. iii. Noticed a common ratio of Adenine to Thymine and Guanine to Cytosine. 1. Conclusion: A always bonds with T and G always bonds with C. i. The Work of Rosalind Franklin with the Work of Watson and Crick: i. Franklin’s photograph showed the required width that DNA would have to be ii. Watson and Crick then used pyrimidine and purines to determine what pairing is being done. 1. Paired a pyrimidine with a pyrimidine and resulted in the DNA not being thick enough. 2. Paired a purine with a purine and resulted in DNA being too thick. 3. Paired a purine with a pyrimidine and resulted in DNA being the right thickness. 4. Chargaff’s Rule: A bonds with T (Purine bonds with Pyrimidine) and G bonds with C (Purine bonds with Pyrimidine) iii. Conclusion: able to find out the structure of DNA and proved Chargaff’s rule to be correct. iv. Alpha Helix: the “backbone” (proteins and sugar) wrap around the nitrogenous bases, does not twist.
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