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Psych 1010 Melinda Fabian Chapter 6 Notes

by: Lizzy Lefcort

Psych 1010 Melinda Fabian Chapter 6 Notes Psych 1010

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Lizzy Lefcort


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These notes cover a chapter of what will be on the next exam
Introduction to Psychology
Melinda Fabian
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lizzy Lefcort on Sunday February 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 1010 at a university taught by Melinda Fabian in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views.


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Date Created: 02/21/16
CHAPTER 6  What is the difference between sensation and perception? • Sensation­ Message coming from senses, process that stimulation of sensory  receptors, results in neural impulses to the brain. • Perception­ The brains interpretation of that message. Process of giving meaning to the message.  What are the general functions of our sensory systems? • The general functions of our sensory system are to detect certain forms of  environmental energy, encode this information to action potential, and then relay  information into brain or central nervous system. What is transduction? Where does it take place?     Transduction: Converts incoming energy in the eye into patterns of action  potentials or neural impulses. Translates information about that energy into a  form that the brain can understand.  What are sensory receptors? What do they do? What is adaptation?     Sensory Receptors­specialized cells that protect particular forms of stimuli in the  environment. Respond best to changes in stimulation.      Adaptation­decreased response of sensory receptors to unchanging stimulation  over time.  What are wavelength, frequency, and amplitude? How do they affect our perception of light and sound (color, brightness, pitch, loudness)? • Wavelength­ the distance between the two peaks (related to color). • Frequency­ waves per unit of time (pitch) • Amplitude­ height (brightness) • Shorter wavelength=higher frequency b▯ lueish colors, high­pitched sounds • Longer wavelength=lower frequency r▯eddish colors, low­pitched sounds • Smaller amplitude=less bright colors, soft sounds • Greater amplitude=more bright colors, loud sounds Are all forms of electromagnetic radiation visible to humans? No the only form of electromagnetic radiation visible to humans is visible light. Know the major cell types of the retina and the flow of information therein. • Retina is made up of photoreceptors (in back of eye). Photoreceptors are made  up of cones and rods.  • Flow of Information: Light comes in through the eye, through all the structures,  through the fluid, to the back to the retina, goes to rods and cones, then that  sends the information back forward to the bipolar cells than to ganglion cells than they come together and form optic nerve.  What are rods and cones and what do they do? How are they distributed in the retina? What is the fovea? What is the blindspot? • Rods and cones are photoreceptors.      Rods: retinal receptors that detect black, white, and gray; necessary for  peripheral and twilight vision, when cones don’t respond. Give us ability to see in low light—light sensitive.      Cones: retinal receptor cells that are concentrated near the center of the retina   (fovea) and that function in daylight or in well­lit conditions. The cones detect fine detail  (known as visual acuity) and give rise to color sensations. Focuses on  color and doesn’t function as well in low light.      Fovea: the central focal point in the retina, around which the eye’s cones cluster.  Where the lens tries to focus an image if we are trying to see detail.      Blindspot: is the point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye, creating a “blind”  spot because no receptor cells are located there.  • Cones cluster in and around the fovea and rods share bipolar cells with other  rods. How does the image coming in through the eye differ from the image that falls on the retina? • The retina receives upside­down images of the world. It doesn’t see a whole  image. Its millions of receptor cells convert particles of light energy into neural  impulses (action potentials) and forward those to the brain. There, the impulses  are reassembled into a perceived, upright­seeming image.  Where does information traveling though the optic nerve go? • Information traveling through the optic nerve goes to the brain.  Know theories of color vision and how they explain our ability to see color, why both are correct, what one explains that the other cannot. •    Trichromatic theory­ the theory that the retina contains three different color  receptors­ one most sensitive to red, one to green, one to blue­ which, when  stimulated in combination can produce the perception of any color. It is the ratio  of three different cones.      Opponent­Process Theory­ the theory that opposing retinal processes (red­ green, yellow­blue, white­black) enables color vision. For example some cells are stimulated by green and inhibited by red; others are stimulated by red and  inhibited by green. For example if the green gets tired out, not signaling red to be stopped and red becomes more active. Very common to be red/green color  deficient.  o Explains afterimages­when you star at something for a while then look at a white sheet of paper you see the color’s opponent color (red­green)  (yellow­blue) (white­black). o Explains colorblindness­ really called color­deficient vision. Simply lack  functioning red­ or green­sensitive comes, or sometimes both. Their vision is monochromatic or dichromatic instead of trichromatic making it  impossible to distinguish red and green. (circle red yellow and green 74  dots in book, pg 244). o Trichromatic theory cannot explain afterimages and colorblindness.  Know structures of the ear and their functions. What/where are the auditory receptors? • Outer ear­ visible. Channels the sound waves through the auditory canal to the  eardrum. Leads into the ear canal which then leads to the tympanic. • Middle ear­ the chamber between the eardrum and cochlea containing three tiny  bones (hammer, anvil, and stirrup) that knock into each other, which amplifies the sound of the oval window.  • Inner ear­ the innermost part of the ear, containing the cochlea (auditory  connection, where sound waves trigger nerve impulses), and semicircular canals  (provides sense of balance and equilibrium).  • Auditory receptors­nerves. Sends neural messages to auditory cortex. Auditory  receptors are in inner ear.  Where are the semicircular canals and what do they do? • The semicircular canals are in the Inner Ear and provide a sense of balance and  equilibrium. What are the two types of deafness and how do they differ?     Conduction Deafness­ due to damage in middle ear. May be that you busted  your eardrum or the bones fusing together (may happen with age). Hearing aids  help to amplify.  •    Nerve/Sensorineural Deafness­a problem more with the inner ear, the hair cells  or the auditory itself—when you hear ringing in your ears, indicates some  damage. Can result from disease and aging. Hearing aids will NOT help. How do the two theories we covered explain how we perceive pitch? How are they both correct?     Place Theory­ basilar membrane­ vibrates at different points depending on pitch  (high pitch= beginning of membrane, low pitch=end of membrane).      Frequency­Matching Theory­we can hear sounds below frequencies that don’t  vibrate on basilar membrane. Auditory nerve fires at the same frequency you are  hearing.  • Place theory best explains how we sense high pitches, frequency­matching  theory best explains how we sense low pitches, and both are correct because  some combination of place theory and frequency­matching theory seems to  handle the pitches in the intermediate range.  What is unique about olfaction regarding its path through the brain? • Olfaction is the only sense that doesn’t travel through the thalamus. The olfactory bulb connects to amygdala (emotion and memory). What sensory information does our skin provide us? • Touch, temperature, pressure, pain Why is the sense of pain important? • The sense of pain is important because it is a necessary warning of danger that  motivates you to change your behavior to escape from whatever is causing you  pain.  What is the gate-control theory? How does it explain cognitive and emotional influences on pain? • The gate­control theory is the theory that the spinal cord contains a neurological  “gate” that blocks pain signals or allows them to pass up to the brain.  • The “gate” is opened by the activity of pain signals traveling up small nerve fibers and is closed by activity in larger fibers or by information coming from the brain.  • Stress, depression, and anxiety open the “gate” (tend to make experience of  pain worse), whereas relaxation, distraction, and optimism block the “gate”  (rubbing, squeezing pain places, relieves pain a little). What are endorphins? • Endorphins are natural analgesics (painkillers). They are peptide  neurotransmitters. They are released when you are feeling pain, help dampen  pain signals (helps close gates on spinal cord).  Why might some people be better able to tolerate pain than others? • Pain tolerance and genes has to do with fewer endorphin receptors. Your brain  influences how much pain you experience. More endorphins people have is  based on how many times you are in pain.  What is meant by bottom-up and top-down processing?     Bottom­Up Processing­ analyzing the features of a stimulus in order to perceive it or recognize it. We rely heavily on bottom­up process and feature analysis when  we learn something that we are unfamiliar with (first learning alphabet).     Top­Down Processing­ rely on prior knowledge, experience, expectations, and  context to recognize or perceive a stimulus. (ex. Once you learn to read, you  don’t have to analyze every world and letter to figure out what it is saying). How do schemas, perceptual sets, and context influence perception?     Schemas­ knowledge, frameworks ▯ bstract mental representations of what we  know and expect about the world.      Perceptual Set­ predisposition­­readiness to perceive stimuli in a certain way     Context­activates particular perceptual sets. Used to make educated guesses.  • ALL OF THESE WORK TOGETHER TO INFLUENCE PERCEPTION! What is the word-superiority effect? • The recognition of a letter in a word vs. non­word faster than if it isn’t in a word  (basket vs. bstkae)  What do reversible figures illustrate? • Reversible figures demonstrate the power of perception to change what we  perceive. This is where the figure and ground switches.  • Figure and ground­emphasized features of stimulus, what we focus on,  everything else is relative background. Figure tends to seem closer to us.  What is meant by gestalt?     Gestalt View of Perception: the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. We  organize sensation into meaningful wholes. Tend to see whole forms instead of  lines, dots, and colors.  What do illusory contours illustrate?     Illusory Contours­illustrate that we see lines that aren’t there in order to perceive  meaningfulness.  What is linear perspective?     Linear Perspective­ as two lines come closer together, the perceived distance  increases. Lines seem closer and closer together as farther away.  What are size, shape, and color/brightness constancy?     Shape Constancy­ orientation. Penny picture example. We perceive the form of  familiar objects as constant even while our retinal image of it changes. When  moving things, things don’t actually get smaller or skinnier, just turning. Folder in  class example.      Size Constancy­ distance. Knowing that an objects size stays the same even as  it moves farther away from retina.      Color/Brightness Constancy­ Objects in different lights are still the same color no  matter what. Color and brightness judged in relation to background and  surroundings. How can culture and experience influence our perceptions? • Culture and the Muller­Lyer Illusion­People who do not know and understand  perspective, pictures, and art, fall for these types of pictures that do not get  perspective and perceive objects to be closer than others. Dear and elephant  picture example. (Slide 33). Muller­Lyer Illusion is lines example (Slide 34).  What does scientific research indicate about ESP and psychics? • Scientific research indicates no solid and reproducible evidence to prove or  disprove ESP and psychics. 


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