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Chapter 1 The Basics

by: Jaime Dolan

Chapter 1 The Basics 623359

Jaime Dolan
penn state berks

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About this Document

Main points of Chapter 1
Anatomy,Physiology, & Disease
Dr. John Grandizio
Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jaime Dolan on Sunday February 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 623359 at penn state berks taught by Dr. John Grandizio in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see Anatomy,Physiology, & Disease in Professional Education Services at penn state berks.

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Date Created: 02/21/16
Chapter 1  The Basics  1/13/16 ­Anatomy is the study of structures and Physiology is the study of how structures function.  ­Standard Anatomical Position­ head, toes, and palms of the hands are facing forward.  Anatomical Term of Direction: ­Anterior or ventral means front.  ­Posterior or dorsal means back side.  ­Superior is closer to the top of the head.  ­Inferior is farther away from the top of the head.  ­Medial is the midline toward the body.  ­Lateral is the midline away from the body.  ­Proximal is closer to the connection to the body and is used for the appendicular region only.  ­Distal is farther from the connection to the body and is used for the appendicular region only.  ­Superficial is closer to the surface.  ­Deep is farther from the surface.  Anatomical Regions: ­Axial­head, neck, trunk ­Abdominal­belly ­Axillary­armpit ­Cephalic or Cranial­head  ­Cervical­neck  ­Facial­face ­Inguinal­groin  ­Pelvic­lower end of the trunk  ­Thoracic­chest  ­Umbilical­navel ­Appendicular­arms and legs  ­Brachial­arm ­Carpal­wrist ­Cubital­elbow ­Femoral­thigh ­Palmar­palms of the hands  ­Patellar­knee ­Plantar­soles of the feet ­Tarsal­ankle  Anatomical Planes  ­The sagittal plane separates right from left.  ­The transverse or horizontal plane separates top from bottom.  ­The frontal or coronal plane separates front from back.  Anatomical Positions  ­Supine is anterior surface facing up.  ­Prone is anterior surface facing down.  Anatomical Cavities ­Dorsal   ­ Cranial Cavity­brain  ­Vertebral Cavity­spinal cord  ­Thoracic  ­Pleural Cavities (2)­lungs  ­Pericardial Cavity­heart  ­Abdominopelvic  ­Abdominal Cavity­ digestive organs, spleen  ­Pelvic Cavity­ urinary, bladder, rectum, reproductive organs Serous Membranes form two layers when surroundings an organ, similar to a water balloon  surrounding a fist.  ­Pericardial Membranes­ heart  ­Pleural Membranes­ surrounds the lungs  ­Peritoneal Membranes­surrounds   ­Mesenteries­sections of the peritoneum that neatly arrange blood.  Homeostasis is a steady internal environment in which the body works best.  ­Negative Feedback­process the body uses to reverse the direction of movement away from  homeostasis.  ­Positive Feedback­process the body uses increase the movement away from homestasis. 


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