### Create a StudySoup account

#### Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

# CHEM 1030 Cagg Chapter 3.5-3.10 Notes Chem 1030

AU

GPA 3.71

### View Full Document

## 42

## 0

## Popular in Fundamental Chemistry I

## Popular in Chemistry

This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amy Notetaker on Sunday February 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Chem 1030 at Auburn University taught by Brett A Cagg in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see Fundamental Chemistry I in Chemistry at Auburn University.

## Similar to Chem 1030 at AU

## Popular in Chemistry

## Reviews for CHEM 1030 Cagg Chapter 3.5-3.10 Notes

### What is Karma?

#### Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

#### You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/21/16

Lecture/Book Notes: Chapter 3.5-3.10 CHEM 1030 Cagg Highlighted: Vocab ----- Highlighted: Formula Section 3.5 v The de Broglie Hypothesis • De Broglie claimed that an electron in an atom behaves like a standing wave, and if it does so in a hydrogen atom, the wavelength should fit the circumference of the orbit exactly. • To show the relationship between circumference if an allowed orbit and the wavelength of the electron, use this formula: 2πr = nλ - “r” is the radius of the orbit - “λ" is the wavelength of the electron wave - “n” is the positive integer • He later concluded that waves behave like particles and particles have wave like ▯ properties, wave properties and particles are related by this formula: λ = ▯▯ v Diffraction of Electrons • Experiments conducted by 3 physicists who demonstrated and verified that electrons do have wave like properties. Section 3.6 • Although there were theories to explain where electrons were located, scientists were still confused. • They also did not fully understand the behavior of electrons. v The Uncertainty Principle • The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle: states that it is impossible to know both the momentum (mass × velocity) and the position of x with certainty. This is the ▯ ▯ formula which represents this principle: ∆x × ∆p ≥ ▯▯ or ∆x × m∆u ≥ ▯▯ • This principle is applied to a hydrogen atom, and it is concluded that the electron cannot orbit the nucleus in a well-defined path. v The Schrodinger Equation • An Austrian physicist formulated an equation, which describes the behavior and energies of submicroscopic particles. • The Schrodinger Equation: incorporates the particle behavior in terms of “m” (mass) and wave behavior in terms of ψ (psi), which depends on the location in space of the system. • This equation developed a new field called quantum mechanics/wave mechanics v The Quantum Mechanical Description of the Hydrogen Atom • Quantum mechanics does not specify the exact location of an electron in an atom, but it does tell us the approximate region where the electron will most likely be at a certain time. • Electron density: a concept, which gives the probability that, an electron will be found in a certain part of an atom. • Atomic orbital: the wave function of an electron in an atom. Section 3.7 • There are 3 quantum numbers, which describe the distribution of electron density in an atom: principal quantum number, angular momentum quantum number, and the magnetic quantum number. v Principal Quantum Number (n) • Principal quantum number: (n) tells you the size of the orbital. • The larger the “n” is, the greater the distance of the electron in the orbital to the nucleus is, which means the orbital is large as well. • The “n” can have integral values of 1, 2, 3, … • The value of “n” determines the energy of an orbital, but that is not true if the atom has more than 1 electron. v Angular Momentum Quantum Number (ℓ) • Angular Momentum Quantum Number: (ℓ) describes the shape of the atomic orbital. • The values of “ℓ” depend on the values of “n”, so for a value of “n” the possible values for “ℓ” range from 0 to n-1 - If n=1, then there is just 1 possible value for "ℓ" which is 0, because 1-1=0 - If n=2, then there are 2 possible values for "ℓ" which are 0 and 1, because 2-1=1, and the number before 1 is 0 - If n=3, then there are 3 possible values for "ℓ" which are 0, 1, and 2, because 3-1=2, and the numbers before 2 are 0 and 1 • The value of "ℓ" is designated by 4 letters: s, p, d, and f ℓ 0 1 2 3 Orbital s p d f designation • Shell: a collection of orbitals with the same value of “n” • Subshell: one or more orbitals with the same “n” and "ℓ" v Magnetic Quantum Number (m ) ℓ • Magnetic quantum number: (m ) desℓribes the orientation of the orbital • In a subshell, the “m” value depends on the "ℓ" value. For each "ℓ"value, there are 2ℓ + 1 values for "m ℓ - If ℓ=0, then there is just 1 possible value for ℓm " which is 0 - If ℓ=1, then there are 3 possible values for “mℓ" which are -1, 0, and +1 - If ℓ=2, then there are 5 possible values for “m " which are -2, -1, 0, +1, and ℓ +2 v Electron Spin Quantum Number (m ) ▯ • Electron spin quantum number: (m ) d▯scribes the electron’s spin. • There are 2 possible directions of spin +1/2 and -1/2 Section 3.8 • Orbitals don’t have a well-defined shape since the wave in the orbital extends from the nucleus to infinity. v S Orbitals • A s orbital is a spherical shape that is symmetric around the atom’s nucleus. • Happens when the “n” is 0. • As the energy levels increase, the electrons grow further from the nucleus. • 1s orbital: contains very little electrons. • 2s orbital: similar to the 1s orbital - Node: a space where there are no electrons and no possibility of finding any. • 3s orbital: larger than 1s and 2s orbitals, and contains 3 nodes. v P Orbitals • A p orbital points in a particular direction and is in the shape of 2 lobes. • Happens when the “n” is 2 or greater. • Also increases in size (2p, 3p, 4p, etc.). v D Orbitals • D orbitals have both complicated shapes and names. • Happens when “n” is 3 or greater. v F Orbitals • F orbitals have difficult shapes to represent. • These are important in accounting for the behaviors of elements with atomic numbers greater than 57. v Energies of Orbitals • Regardless of the subshell, orbitals in the same shell have the same energy. - This means that in the second shell, the orbitals, one 2s and three 2p have the same energy. - In the third shell, the orbitals, one 3s, three 3p, and five 3d have the same energy. - In the fourth shell, the orbitals, one 4s three 4p, five 4d and seven 4f have the same energy. Section 3.9 • Electron configuration: how the electrons are distributed in the atomic orbitals. v The Pauli Exclusion Principle • The Pauli exclusion principle: states that no two electrons in an atom can have the same 4 quantum numbers. v The Aufbau Principle • The Aufbau principle: makes it possible to build the periodic table to determine their electron configuration by steps. v Hund’s Rule • Hund’s rule: states that when the number of electrons in the same spin is maximized, that is when the arrangement of electrons in orbitals of equal energies is the most stable. • Diamagnetic: atoms with all paired electrons. • Paramagnetic: atoms with one or more unpaired electrons. v General Rules for Writing Electron Configurations • Electrons will be situated in the available orbitals with the lowest energy. • Each orbital can hold up to 2 electrons max. • If an empty orbital is available, electrons will not pair in the degenerate ones. • Orbitals will fill up in order. Section 3.10 • Noble gas core: another way an electron configuration can be shown of all elements except for hydrogen and helium.

### BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.

### You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

## Why people love StudySoup

#### "There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

#### "I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

#### "I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

#### "It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

### Refund Policy

#### STUDYSOUP CANCELLATION POLICY

All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email support@studysoup.com

#### STUDYSOUP REFUND POLICY

StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here: support@studysoup.com

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to support@studysoup.com

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.