Bioscience Week 4 Notes
Bioscience Week 4 Notes 104
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shagun Gupta on Sunday February 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 104 at University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee taught by in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biological Sciences at University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee.
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Date Created: 02/21/16
Photosynthesis has 2 major phases: 1. Light dependent reactions-requires light 2. Calvin Cycle-can occur in light/dark Plants photosynthesize much more sugar molecules than they can use. Sugars are usually stored in plants as starch. Chemicals energy is also stored in ATP. Aerobic respiration O2 36 ATP O2 2 ATP Anaerobic respiration There is more energy in the chemical bonds of a sugar molecule than in the CO2 and water molecules that it was made from in photosynthesis. FLOWERS Sexual reproduction in angiosperms Meiosis: A type of cell division that produces gametes for sexual reproduction Flower parts -Sepals -Petals -Stamens -Pistils 4 sets of specialized appendages Group of sepals: calyx Group of petals: corolla Flower symmetry -Radial symmetry: can make many many lines -Bilateral symmetry-divides flower into mirror images -All the stamens collectively: Androecium -Pollen (sperm cells) are produced in the anther -Filament: stock that holds anther in place Anther: pollen seeds are produced-meiosis Female flower parts: carpels -stigma: tip of carpel, pollen grains sit here -style: hollow tube from stigma to ovary -ovary: contains ovules (egg cells) A flower can have more than 1 carpel -can be separate (2) or fused (3 or 4) Ovary-has ovules that ripen to become seeds, and eventually ripens to become fruit. OVARY POSITION: Superior Ovary-in its normal position, closest to the top Inferior Ovary- right underneath all other flower structures COMPLETE FLOWERS: A complete flower has all 4 different types of appendages. It has some of everything: Stamens Petals Pistils Sepals Incomplete flowers: lack any of the 4 floral structures Example-maple sugar maple flowers PERFECT/BISEXUAL FLOWERS: have both male and female parts IMPERFECT FLOWERS: Are either male/female flowers Monoecious plants- Male and female flowers in the same plant Dioecious plants- Male and female flowers are on different plants. EX- male and female willow plants INFLORESCENCES: The arrangement of flowers on the stalk Pollination: transfer of pollen -usually by insects or wind Fertilization: union of sperm and egg cells to form the zygote Wind pollination: -Grasses and many trees -Incomplete flowers (some parts of the flower are missing) -When flower is wind pollinated, it doesn’t want to attract insects -mostly smaller flowers that don’t attract too much attention Insect Pollination -responsible for most pollination -includes bees, wasps, flies, ants, butterflies and moths Animal Pollination -Birds and bats -Animals are attracted to flowers by color and scent NECTAR Nectar is sugar water produced by special glands (nectaries) in the flower. FERTILIZATION Pollen grains germinate to produce a pollen tube 1 pollen tube contains 1 ovule Double fertilization: -2 sperms cell per pollen grain 1sndcell-produces baby plant 2 point- produces nutrients Self Pollination: Pollination from the same plant causes fertilization Outcrossing: -Some plants have to find a different partner -Pollen from a different plant causes fertilization Dioecious plants are NEVER self-fertile.
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