SCOM 121 Chapters 4 & 5 & 14
SCOM 121 Chapters 4 & 5 & 14 SCOM 121 0003
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gab Calderon on Sunday February 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SCOM 121 0003 at James Madison University taught by Lori Britt in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 73 views. For similar materials see Fundamental Human Communications: Presentations in Communication at James Madison University.
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Date Created: 02/21/16
CHAPTERS 4 amp 5 amp 14 Chapter 4 Language Symbolic means to know and share experience of our external and inner words 1 Explain the four elements common to all languages structure productivity displacement and selfre exiveness a b Structure Need grammar which is the set of rules that specify how the units of language can be meaningfully combined Phonemes individual units of sound that compose a specific spoken language Ex vowels consonant combinations Some people say hair and others say air instead Phonology part of grammar that describes the patterns of sound in a language Morphology part of grammar that describes how morphemes are constructed meaningfully from phonemes Morpheme smallest unit of meaning in language Morphemes can be a standalone word free morpheme EX walk for next go or be a unit of meaning that has no meaning until it is attached to the standalone word bound morpheme EX ing s ion unfriend or Facebooking Example bat is a free morpheme When you add s to the end it is 2 morphemes one free and one bound Syntax govern combining words into phrases and phrases into sentences Subjectverbobject is a syntax in English language Semantics the meaning of words and sentences Basically makes sure the meaning of the sentence makes sense Symbols are arbitrary representations of objects events ideas or relationships EX nyc map Word origin is arbitrary but word usage is conventional Why is a table called a table Referents are the objects events ideas or relationships referred to by the words Problems one word can have multiple meanings like set Productivity the capacity of language to transform a small number of phonemes into whatever words phrases and sentences that you require to communicate your abundance of thoughts and feelings Basically the idea of combining a bunch of words to makes sentence sot get your point across or express reality EX shoulder cold shoulder shoulder to cry on chip on shoulder Displacement talk about ideas and events that isn t real or abstract Ex unicorns fairies if I were 10 ft tall and 500 lbs would I be considered fat Selfre exiveness use language to talk about language Like this chapter or sing language 2 Explain the abstracting process sense experience description inference and judgment Abstracting process where we formulate increasingly vague conceptions of our world by leaving out details associated with objects events and ideas 4 levels of abstraction 1 Sense experience you sense experience with the physical world is inherently selective and limited 2 Description verbal reports that sketch what we perceive from our sense ex description of the world is how you see it not an exact duplicate of it 3 Inference conclusions about the unknown based on the known Educated guess Ex Neighbor not home because the car is gone 4 Judgement subjective evaluations of objects event and ideas Ex your opinion about someone that isn t a fact 3 Explain the two versions of the SapirWhorf hypothesis and their relationship to culture One that claims we are the prisoners of our native language unable to think certain thoughts or perceive in certain ways because of the grammatical structure and lexicon total vocabulary of our language linguistic determinism If you don t have a word for something you cant use it Problem it assumes thought I dependent on language yet we can think without language Everyone had a time when they couldn t express something in words Other claims that the grammar and lexicon of our native language powerfully in uence what we see but do not imprison our thinking and perception linguistic relativity SO we can think beyond those limitations Masculine generic is using his he man in a sentence that could be for both genders Genderbias language make women invisible and brands them as less powerful and important than men 4 Explain how connotative meaning differs from denotative meaning Single reaction immediate response to a term automatic emotional response Semantic response maybe the person didn t mean what they said Connotation suggestedpersonal meaning based on past experiences There are 3 dimensions evaluation goodbad potency strongweak and activity activepassive Denotative Dictionary shared meaning Objective meaning of words commonly agreed to by members of a speech community Example Rottweiler Denotative is dictionary definition but aggressive is the connotation of Rottweiler 5 What is the difference between a fact and an inference False dichotomy using either or language to frame a choice as though only two opposing possibilities exist when at least a 3rd option is clearly available black to white gay or straight there is more than just two choices Inferential error mistaken conclusion that results from the assumption that inferences are factual descriptions of reality instead of interpretations of varying accuracy made by individuals 6 How might the use of slang jargon and euphemisms in uence the understanding of a communication message J argon vocabulary used for a profession trade or group This can help when doctors use proper language to communicate about a patient but this can also cause problem for those who don t understand the verbal shorthand Euphemisms form of linguistic Novocain whereby word choices numb us to or camou age unpleasant or offensive realities Basically say things in a nicer way Like use pass away instead of died Slang informal words employed by a group with a common interest NOTES FROM CLASS Language can shape our experiences and vice versa Connection between language and thought What s the relationship SapirWhorf hypothesis The Power of Language Labels People watch same interview but some were told it was a job applicant interview and the other was a psychiatric patient Language can constrain expectations of ourselves and others Hurtful words Condescension and criticism like in a relationship Ritual deference safer in plane when the second pilot is in command not first Ritual Apologies Framing Whoever controls language controls how we think about things people idea and issues Frames determine whether people notice understand and remember problems Binaries with us or against us End of life Death with dignity recidivism2 1 crime Chapter 5 Nonverbal Communication 7 Explain how nonverbal channels of communication differ from verbal channels Nonverbal communication Sharing meaning with others nonlingusitically Nonverbal Verbal l Multichannel shake fist extend 1 Single channeled Using different middle finger and scream This phrases but getting the same point causes inconsistent messages across Channel stays the same 2 Children rely on nonverbal until they 2 When children begin to speak they start speaking rely on verbal like sarcasm 3 Ambiguous Unclear 3 Usually clear but detect lies 4 Has no discrete beginning or end 4 This has discrete beginning and Continually send messages for others endings We end when we stop talking to perceive 5 This can be unintentional like blushing or blinking rapidly Truth bias believing most messages are truthful Lie bias Expect most messages to be deceptivea lie 8 Explain how nonverbal communication functions in relationship with verbal communication Repetition most of the time we verbalize what we want to say then we use nonverbal cues Ex Say yes and nod or give directions then point This increases the clarity and credibility of the message Accentuation Emphasizes your message Ex Don t ever say that again Or pound your fist on the table Substitution Sometime nonverbal cues substitute for verbal messages EX a yawn can mean Im bored Or shaking your head means no Regulation Taking turn speaking by looking at the next person expected to speak Contradiction this also is mixed messages like sometimes we contradict verbal message with nonverbal cues 9 Explain the major types of nonverbal communication Haptics also known as the study of touch Touch of premature babies proves that they go home 6 says earlier than those who don t get touchedmassaged touch has an impact on emotional health and well being 0 Functionalprofessional touch least intense and takes place between doctors and patients coaches and athletes 0 Social polite touch initial introductions like business relationships or formal occasions like a handshake 0 Friendship warmth touch most ambiguous type of touch and least to misunderstandings between people Too much touch is being too friendly but too little touch might makes you seem cold 0 Love and intimacy touch only for a very few special individuals like close friends family spouses 0 Sexual touch intimate and most restricted 0 There are 6 forms of taboo touching l Strangers are the untouchables like when you bump someone you say sorry 2 Harmful touches should be avoided children know don t hit or bite 3 Avoid startling touches a tap on shoulder is something startling 4 Avoid the interruption touch kiss your partner during an intense movie scene rejection usually occurs 5 Don t move others don t just move people quickly say sorry I need to get through 6 Avoid rub it in wife says go walk them to the door then slaps his arm to do it 0 To deal with touch violation assume the violation is accidental use descriptive statements to state that you don t want to be touched that way uses intense nonverbal cues and a direct firm demand and an apology if it was a mistake Paralanguage vocal cues 0 Vocal characterizers laughing yelling crying yawning 0 Vocal qualifiers volume tone rhythm rate 0 Vocal segregates uh uhhum shh ohh Proxemics in uence that distance and territoriality have on our communication 0 Types of spatial relationships and their characteristics in US Culture 1 Intimate close loving limited eye contact touch smell 2 Personal within 4 feet from you converse with friends eye contact gestures 3 Social 412 feet away business talk formal tones eye contact 4 Public 12 feet or more lectures speeches eye contact Territoriality predisposition to defend a fixed geographic area or territory as ones exclusive domain 0 We use markers fences keep out signs barriers to entry walls locked doors and occupancy same seat in class everyday to stake out our territory Other Notes from the chapter Beauty bias perceived advantage accorded those who are viewed as attractive Beautiful people are viewed to be sociable happy sexy etc These people also tend to get paid more Bilateral Symmetry the right and left sides match each other Waisttohip ratio the smaller the waist is compared to the hip hourglass shape the greater the perception of attractiveness Wedge shape broad shoulders and narrow waist and hips Oculesics eye contact and how it regulates conversational turn taking communicates involvement and establishes connection with others Facial feedback hypothesis facial expressions can in uence emotions and vice versa Display rules cultural specific prescriptions that dictate the appropriateness of behaviors Manipulators gestures made by one part of the body usually the hands that rub pick squeeze clean or groom another body part People observing manipulators feel nervous and discomfort but at times one might feel relaxed or energized Illustrators gestures that help explain what a person says to another person Usually occurs simultaneously with the verbal message but sometimes begin while the speaker is still saying things EX Telling a person to turn right then point right Emblems gestures that have precise meanings separate form verbal communication Ex hand wave means goodbye Chapter 14 Informative Speaking 1 What distinguishes informative speaking from persuasive speaking Informative usually no disagreements because the audience is just listening to facts or tips about a subject Informative speeches have potential to ignite disagreements without prompting This speech may arouse concern on a subject If you talk about cars one might go buy it Informative reports facts are mentioned provides recent findings science reports explanation deep understanding of complex concepts events objects and issues demonstrations shows how to use an object or perform an activity narratives storytelling Great story comparisons pros and cons 2 What are signposts and transitions and how are they used in constructing a presentation Signpost guide the listener during a speech Organizational markers that indicate the structure of the speech and notify listeners that a particular point is about to be addressed EX my first point is there are two ways Transitions connect what was said with what will be said EX for example however along the same lines but 3 Describe the characteristics of an appropriate or effective oral citation Thinks about the credibility of the article you cite and make it interesting but not pointless to the topic abbreviate source citations when needed but not when its two articles from the same magazine Avoid information overload like don t drown in data and time your speech if its too long cut out information Tell a good story that s relatable or funny 4 What are the types of visual aids that can be used during a speech Choose an aid that is relatable to your speech and enhances it They clarify difficult points or descriptions of complex objects They gain and maintain the audiences attention They enhance the speakers credibility They improve the delivery 5 What are guidelines for the competent usage of visual aids Obj ects dont be unrealistic like bringing something that s not for a classroom Inanimate object that squirm like puppies are hard to control Models don t ask an audience member ot help
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