Lifespan Development week 4 & 5 notes
Lifespan Development week 4 & 5 notes 2603
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Kirby on Sunday February 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 2603 at University of Oklahoma taught by Lara Mayeux in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Lifespan Development in Psychlogy at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 02/21/16
Brain development: Infancy- Important events: o Formation of nuerons o Myelination fatty substance that surrounds axon speeds conductance of nerve impulses, aids in repair o Migration/specialization Communicating to areas where needed What happens when something goes wrong? Disorders Networking o Networking Formation of connections o Pruning Getting rid of connections not needed or used Areas that are maximally pruned= maximally efficient Not enough neurons at beginning, then making tons of new ones that may or may not be used. “use it or lose it” neurons not used will weaken and die away and neurons accessed often will be strengthened At full term birth, infant brain already well developed and well networked o Proliferation of neurons begin early in prenatal period Brain Hemispheres- Hemispheric Lateralization o Right Hemisphere Processing visual-spatial info Processing non-speech sounds (music) Face perception Emotional information Facial expressions, tone of voice Withdrawal emotions o Disgust, distress, fear o Left Hemisphere: Processing speech sounds Expression of Approach emotions (cause engagement) Joy, Interest, Anger Plasticity- responsiveness of neurons to environmental input Plasticity at work: enriched environments o Enhanced brain development o Strengthen connections between neurons o Modify brain chemistry to improve efficiency o Differences in brain weight, neural complexity, biochemistry Children raised in institutions o Similar scenario as the cage rats o More neglect causing smaller and lighter brain size Language processing o Individuals with brain trauma Loss of function Other regions changing function to take on the tasks lost Childhood- Increase in myelination-fine motor skills Growth slows down but continues Major growth areas o Frontal lobes (age 3-6) Planning, organizing, problem solving, paying attention o Temporal and Parietal lobes (age 6 to puberty) Language, spatial processing Adolescence- major changes Biochemical changes in brain o Dopamine up, serotonin down Increases in frontal lobe activity Amygdala and hippocampus (limbic system) enlarge Mismatch: frontal lobe doesn’t keep up with limbic system Adulthood and Aging- Brain loses weight: about 10% by age 90 Brain function: begins to slow down in middle adulthood Aging: Changes associated with brain chemistry: -declines in memory- acetylcholine Especially Alzheimer’s disease -problems with motor activities (dopamine reduction) Most severe: Parkinson’s – loss of motor control -increase in “neural noise” (reduction in production of GABA) - nerve impulses don’t travel on the most efficient pathways and are slower than usual; inhibits vision, makes it harder to focus attention Physical Development: Weight and height in infancy: Average newborn 20 in long, 7.5 lbs. -typical span: 5.5 to 10 lbs -lose weight the first week -once they’ve adjusted to eating, they will gain weight again (5-6 ounces per week) -typically double birth weight in 4 months, triple birth weight at 1 year -grow about an inch per month in first year Height and weight beyond infancy: -girls remain slightly smaller, lighter than boys in preschool years; body fat declines (rate is faster for boys; girls have more fatty tissue, boys have more muscle) -muscle strength gradually increases- lose more baby fat in middle childhood, adolescence; muscle tone, coordination improve in middle childhood Sexual Maturation: Puberty: attainment of sexual maturity- pituitary gland begins to secrete hormones that activate testes or ovaries; -initiates a growth spurt in secondary sex characteristics (observable physical manifestations; breast development, hair growth, voice changes -primary sex characteristics (evolve years after secondary): menarche, spermarche When does puberty begin? -timing is mostly genetic -also effected by environmental factors (body weight/ % body fat, esp. for girls) -parent-child relationships: playing role in onset of puberty; close relationships may delay maturation process; family conflict related to earlier menarche (divorce, marital conflict) Early bloomers and late bloomers: Good or bad? Depends on gender -boys: hitting puberty early, almost always a good thing- perceive themselves more positively; better peer relations; more likely to want to complete college, higher academic achievers -girls: early is not usually good; poorer body image due to increased attention from males; more adjustment problems- higher rates of depression, social anxiety, impulse control; behavioral issues Physical changes of adulthood: -Height loss, weight gain (lose about ½ inch of height every decade) -collagen and fat loss in skin wrinkles and sagging; sun damage, hyperpigmentation -hair thins out and greys (slowing of production of melanin) -muscles, joints, and bones: by mid-40s, decrease in muscle strength (back, legs); tendons and ligaments become less efficient; bone density: peak in 30s, then declines (twice as fast for women as men) Other issues: -cholesterol, blood pressure increase -changes in sexuality -menopause: ceasing of menstrual periods -loss of fertility in women -is there a male menopause? Reduction in testosterone, also less fertile with age Symptoms of menopause: night sweats, sleep disturbance, mood swings, hot flashes, gas The baby human: To walk: blueprint for human movement; stepping pattern seen in 3 day old but not 6 week old; reemerges when in water and on treadmill; theory for “disappearance” is that legs weigh too much for babies to step. Kicking helps build and strengthen muscles to prepare for walking Rolling over: lifting head up while on stomach before being able to roll over Grasping reflex: reaching for a toy, need to find muscle pattern for directing reach; easier to reach with feet before hands around 5 months old, can only reach forward. After, new strategies are learned. 7 months, sitting up alone, balancing using hands and feet. Classic fear of heights the visual cliff-infants with more experience crawling will be unwilling to cross over to the “deep side” Peripheral vision developing with crawling experience Emotional refueling- making sure mother is still there after crawling a distance Cruising- using objects to help balance while walking; essential component is hands Sit up, crawl, cruise, then walk New walkers will take small steps with feet wide apart to regain balance after every step Motor, sensory, and perceptual development Motor- Esther Thaylin, most influential modern developmental theorist- motor, cognitive, social development Dynamic systems theory- dominant theoretical perspective in motor development today -Infants develop skills needed for motor milestones -“Soft assembly”- putting the right things together New skills: result from combo of motivation and soft assembly Newborn reflexes: temporary- Babinski reflex- sole of foot- object stroked down foot, then toes will fan out Palmar reflex- object in hand, hand will wrap around object tightly Moro reflex- startle reflex- loud noises or dropping feeling, arms and legs fly out, then pulled back in as if trying to grab onto something to not fall Plantar grasp- press object to bottom of foot, toes will curl in as if trying to grab hold with feet Rooting response- stroke check or close to mouth, baby will turn head toward source and open mouth wide- helps with breastfeeding Sucking response- sucking on thumb, nipple, etc. before association of nipple with food Stepping reflex- alternating stepping response when held upright and some weight being put on feet and “walking” will occur.
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