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NTRI 2000 Week 6

by: Alyssa Anderson

NTRI 2000 Week 6 NTRI 2000

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Alyssa Anderson

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These notes cover the material we went over between 2/15 and 2/19. It includes the "pub quiz" we took in class Wednesday WITH ANSWERS INCLUDED.
Nutrition and Health
Dr. Greene
Class Notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alyssa Anderson on Sunday February 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NTRI 2000 at a university taught by Dr. Greene in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views.

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Date Created: 02/21/16
1 Nutrition 2000 Week 6 Notes How much fiber do we need? A. AI is 25 grams/day for women B. AI is 38 grams/day for men C. AI has been set to reduce the risk of CV disease and perhaps diabetes D. DV is 25 grams for 2000 kcal diet E. Average U.S. intake: 14 grams/day for women, 17 grams/day for men How much is too much fiber? A. >60 grams/day B. Extra fluid needed C. May decrease availability of some minerals ` D. Unmet energy needs on children Dietary Fiber A. Starches are digestible B. Fiber is not digestible 1. Therefore, it arrives at the colon intact 2. Why? Because we don't produce the correct digestive enzymes to break the chemical bonds that hold these polysaccharides together C. It is a group of polysaccharides D. Similar characteristics- made up of indigestible plant polysaccharides 2 Types of Fiber A. Insoluble/non-fermentable fiber 1. Cellulose 2. Hemicellulose 3. Lignins B. Soluble/viscous fiber 1. Pectins, Gums, Mucilages 2. Fruit, vegetable, rice bran, psyllium seed C. Functional Fibers 1. Examples; inulin, oligofructose 2. *Added to food* 3. Resistant to digestion but fermentable 4. Stimulates the growth of beneficial bacteria (prebiotic) 5. Evidence based for designation Whole Grains 1. 9/10 people don't meet whole grain recommendation of 3 servings/day 2. Look beyond the label to the list of ingredients Food Labels 1. Don’t separate insoluble and soluble fiber 2. Total Fiber= dietary fiber + functional fiber (according to the Institute of Medicine) 3 Healthy benefits of adequate fiber in the diet 1. Insoluble fiber adds mass to the feces, preventing constipation 2. Constipation can increase the risk of developing hemorrhoids and diverticula 3. Soluble (fermentable) fibers 1. Attracts water 2. Delays the stomach from emptying which promotes satiety 3. Slows the glucose absorption from the small intestine which lowers the need for insulin 4. Inhibits the absorption of cholesterol and bile acids in bile, lowering blood cholesterol concentrations 5. Both soluble and insoluble fibers 1. Aid in body weight control 2. Reduce the risk of colon cancer Monounsaturated fatty acid structure figure- 1 double bond (MUFA) Polyunsaturated fatty acid structure figure- 2+ double bonds (PUFA) Composition of Fats A. Fats are complex B. Composed of both saturated and unsaturated fats C. Many different types/species of fatty acids (determined by chain length) 4 Lipids A. They do not dissolve well in water B. Types 1. Triglycerides a. Storage form of lipids in the body b. Fats and oils in food are typically triglycerides c. Triglyceride = glycerol + 3 fatty aids d. Fatty acids are a chain of carbon atoms flanked by hydrogen atoms and an acid group at one end. The omega side is the methyl side; the alpha side is the acid side e. Look at the figure of glyceride 2. Phospholipids 3. Sterols (cholesterol) 4. “Lipids”- generic term for fats and oils and other molecules a. “Fat”- lipid that is solid at room temperature b. “Oil “- lipid that is liquid at room temperature Essential Fatty Acids A. Our bodies can only make certain types of fatty acids B. Have a double bond after the 4th carbon from the omega end C. Therefore, omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are essential fatty acids 1. Omega-3 fatty acids- alpha linolenic acid (ALA) has a double bond after the 3rd carbon atom 2. Omega-6 fatty acids- linoleum acid (LA) has a double bond after the 6th carbon atom 5 D. Different forms 1. Saturated fatty acids (SFA)- solid form 2. Unsaturated fatty acids (UFA)- liquid form a. Cis form- causes the backbone of a molecule to bend (looks like a C) such as oleic acid B. Trans form- straight line, such as eladic acid 6 Pub Quiz 1. Name the type of carbohydrate that stimulates insulin secretion. Monosaccharides 2. What is gluconeogenesis? The production of glucose that you produce when you fast and is released by the liver 3. Name the monosaccharides in sucrose/maltose Glucose and fructose 4. T or F Fructose is considered lipogenic TRUE 5. What is the sugar that is measured in “blood sugar”? Glucose 6. What is lactase? And what happens if you don’t have enough lactase? Lactase is an enzyme (-ASE) that breaks down lactose and can lead to lactose intolerance/persistence 7. Name the two organs that primarily control blood glucose? Liver and pancreas 7 8. Write the general chemical structure for a carbohydrate CHO 9. Name 3 characteristics of functional fiber 1. Resistant to digestion 2. Fermentable 3. It is added to food 4. Stimulates the growth of beneficial bacteria (prebiotic) 10. What is in “other carbohydrates”? Starch content (complex carbs) 11. What does “Total Fiber” consist of? Dietary fiber + functional fiber 12. What is in “Sugars”? Simple sugars 13. What can influence glycemic index? The glycemic index is the ratio of a standard blood glucose, the food that you're eating, your structure, and the whole package of what you're eating. 14. In the experiment of insulin experiments, what happened to the dogs in which the pancreas was removed? The dogs got diabetes, the scientists tasted the urine (too sweet), and they drank a lot more water and peed more 8 15. Name 2 food groups that are high in carbohydrates Grains, Milk, Fruit 16. T or F fiber arrives at the colon intact. TRUE because it resists digestion 17. What organ secretes glucagon? Glucagon is the hormone released from the pancreas by the alpha cells (insulin created from beta cells 18. What hormone is released by the adrenal glands to rapidly control bladder functions? Adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol 19. What carbohydrate is stored in the liver? Glycogen 20. Name the four organs that principally mediate insulins action. Pancreas, liver, stomach, adrenal glands


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