Ed Psych Week 4
Ed Psych Week 4 EIPT 3473
Popular in Educational Psychology of Childhood and Adolescent Development
Popular in Education and Teacher Studies
EDAH 2963 - 001
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Crystal Neill on Sunday February 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EIPT 3473 at University of Oklahoma taught by Ben Heddy in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 148 views. For similar materials see Educational Psychology of Childhood and Adolescent Development in Education and Teacher Studies at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 02/21/16
Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development • First to systematically put out a theory for childhood development • The basics ◦ 1. Contructivism ‣ Theory of learning ‣ People construct new knowledge from former knowledge and experience and how they interpret what they're learning ‣ Child actively constructs new mental structures by interacting with his/her environment ‣ Mental structures are groups of knowledge that we sort new knowledge into and coordinate it with the old ‣ Knowledge construction and reconstruction happens in stages throughout childhood ◦ 2. Development sequence is universal ◦ 3. Stages are qualitative- one does not gradually blend into another ◦ 4. Nature and nurture both impact the speed of development ◦ What develops? ‣ Active construction of mental structures --> development ‣ Structures are made up of schemes: collection of perceptions, ideas, and actions that are grouped together • Ex. Scheme • Each idea has its own scheme • New ideas make us reconstruct schemes ◦ Ex. Basenji doesn't bark, so restructure ideas • Schemes for ideas, events, processes ◦ Mental structures like physical structures ‣ Lungs let us breathe ‣ Stomachs let us eat ‣ Mental structures let us think • The more schemes you have and the more connected they are, the more complex your thinking can be ◦ Schemes constantly changing: differentiation ‣ Ex. School can be separated into recess, class, lunch, etc ◦ Schemes can be joined to form a new concept: integration ‣ Ex. Dog, horse, whale can be integrated into "mammal" concept ◦ Generalization ‣ Generalize past experiences to current experiences ‣ This happened that time, so maybe it will this time too ‣ Ex. We don't read Terms and Conditions every time we sign it ‣ Ex. Kids who plays violin and sees a viola will be able to say, "oh, that's like a violin" • Process of development ◦ Adaptation: to survive, organisms must adapt to their environment with its physical and mental stimuli ‣ Assimilation: putting new information into schema • Sometimes it just doesn't ﬁt--> ‣ Accommodation: actually changes schema • Telling a kid the earth is round forces them to change schema of its ﬂatness completely ◦ Organization: mind has complex organization ‣ Developing improves organization which lets you think more complexly ◦ How does learning happen? ‣ Mental states • Equilibrium: schemas explain the world around them and help person understand • Disequilibrium: schemas can't explain world around them, also called cognitive dissonance • Learning happens when a kid is in disequilibrium and wants to get back to equilibrium, so they add to and change schemas • Where do we want our students to be? ◦ Get them to a state of disequilibrium so that they can get back to equilibrium ◦ But we can't take them too far into disequilibrium or they will become frustrated or give up, and they must come back to equilibrium ‣ Equilibration • Regulating your knowledge • Assimilation and accommodation moving you from disequilibrium to equilibrium • Facilitates progress toward logical consistency ◦ The role of experience ‣ Experience of physical world • Build and change schemes through experiencing physical environment • Thinking about direct experience with physical world helps construct general principles • Kids are "little scientists" ‣ Experience of social world • Build and change schemes through experiencing social environment • Thinking about direct experience with social world helps construct general principles ◦ Operations ‣ Calculating interpretation of what you're experiencing ‣ Can generalize to different situations ‣ Can be reversed ‣ Integrated with other operations ‣ Happen in stages- shared by people at same level of development ◦ The stages ‣ 1. Sensorimotor • Birth-2 years • Thinking happens through observable actions • Seeing is believing • Sensory perception ◦ Why they touch and smell and taste everything • Motor activity to learn to move and interact with the world • Milestones ◦ Object permanence: even if something isn't in sight, it still exists ◦ Goal-directed behavior: goes from instinctual to deliberate • Mechanisms ◦ Reﬂexes: sucking thumb, grasping, focusing on things ◦ Circular reactions: repeating things that are pleasurable ‣ Sucking thumb, crying • Egocentrism: they think they are the only thing, not one object in a world of objects ‣ 2. Pre-operations • 2-7 years • Thinking becomes conceptual and representational • Not just observable actions • Deferred imitation: will imitate what you do at a later time • Can pretend • Drawing (related to pretending) • Spoken language • Advantages over sensorimotor ◦ Think faster, not tied to physical activity ◦ Can think back to past or forward to present ◦ Representation of objects and language starts working, can describe things and talk about several elements
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