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A&P Week 5

by: Victoria Notetaker

A&P Week 5 BIOL 2311

Victoria Notetaker

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Lecture notes for 02-16 and 02-18.
Anatomy and Physiology II
Dr. Al Dahwi
Class Notes
BIOL 2311
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Victoria Notetaker on Sunday February 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 2311 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Dr. Al Dahwi in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology II in Biology at University of Texas at El Paso.


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Date Created: 02/21/16
Chapter 5: The Integumentary System Announcements:  Overall Exam 1 grades good o Grades will not be posted on BB o Will return scantrons  Wednesday labs canceled o All other labs will continue as normal Refer to Figure 5.1 Skin Structures (page 151)  Skin= Cutaneous membrane o Dry membrane o Not a simple organ  An organ system  Contains several organs o Blood vessels o Nerve fibers (4 type of tissue) rd o Muscles (3 type of tissue)  2 types of tissue: o Epithelial: stratified squamous (epidermis) o Connective: dermis  Dermis: made up of connective tissue o Papillary layer o Reticular layer  Integument- ‘covering’  Hypodermis: NOT considered part of the skin o Links skin to underlying muscles o Made up of adipose tissue o Superficial fascia: other name for hypodermis  Epidermis: outer most layer of skin o Stratified squamous epithelial tissue o Characteristics: keep in mind the characteristics of epithelial Refer to figure 5.2 Epidermal cells and layers of the epidermis (page 152)  Layers of epidermis dependent on the type discussed thin or thick  4 cells of epidermis: o Keratinocytes: most abundant and important epithelial cell in epidermis  Linked together by lateral contacts- desmosomes  Responsible for the fibrous protein: keratin  Arise from deepest layer of epidermis: Stratum Basale  Germ layer o Stratum Basale= Stratum Germinativum  Made up of stem cells o Stimulated by chemical: epidermal growth factor  Causes continuous mitotic division  All keratinocytes arise from this layer o Melanocyte: 2  Function: responsible for the production of skin pigment: melanin  Melanin surrounded by sac-like membrane (granule): melanosomes o Completed in melanocytes o Transferred to the keratinocytes  Modified epithelium cell  Has cytoplasmic extensions between keratinocytes FIGURE AL-DAWHI DRAWS?????  Moves melanosomes along acting filaments, motor protein helps lead melanosomes move to through the end of the process to the sunny side of keratinocyte o Protects keratinocytes from UV radiation SIDE NOTE: EXAM 2 may move from March 1 to March 3 rd o Epidermal dendritic cell: Langerhans cell  Associated with immune system  NOT an epithelial cell  Originates in red bone marrow and migrates to epidermis  Has cytoplasmic extensions  Help perform cell function  Enable cell to capture foreign pathogens (antigens: anything foreign to body) o Once stuck to the extension it is engulfed and broken-down into peptide fragments o Fragments presented to the T lymphocytes 3 o ANTIGEN PRESENTING CELLS  Located in epidermis: 1 line of dense o Tactile cell: Merkel cell  Usually located at junction of dermis and epidermis  Associated with nervous system  Sensory nerve ending (yellow colored fiber in figure)  Disk-like ending of sensory nerve: tactile or Merkel disk o Touch  Layers of the epidermis o # of layers dependent of type of skin o Thick skin located: palms of hands and soles of feet  Deepest: stratum basale  Stratum spinosum  Stratum granulosum  Stratum lucidum  Superficial layer: stratum corneum o Thin skin: ALL other areas  Deepest: Stratum Basale  Stratum Spinosum  Stratum granulosum  Superficial layer: stratum corneum  REPEATED: Keratinocytes most abundant cell & arise from stratum basale 4  Stratum Basale: o Single layer of stem cells  DO NOT differentiate  Continuous mitotic division  One daughter cell stays in stratum basale for mitosis  The other daughter cell is pushed up to Stratum basale and upward o Pushed upward: continuous mitotic division pushes up the older cells until it reaches stratum corneum o Keratinocyte in stratum spinosum: develop pre-keratin filaments which attach to desmosomes and form networks  Stratum Spinosum: cells appear to have spines o If you compare a stained and unstained sample  Will see spines in stained sample but not the unstained  Keratinocytes shrink with staining but desmosome do not  Stratum granulosum: beginning of keratinization process o Appearance of two types of granules o Granules: membrane bound sac-like structures  Lamellar granules: laminated granules  Performs function in stratum granulosum  Releases glycolipid material contained inside to the outside surface of the plasma membrane of each and every keratinocyte 5 o Significance: due to chemical structure of material  Does not allow water to pass membrane  Epidermal water barrier: prevent loss of water through skin  Keratohyaline granules: DOES NOT perform function in stratum granulosum  Stratum Corneum: releasing of material in keratohyaline granule o Keratohyaline granule: contains protein  Protein released into the inside of keratinocytes  Acts like a glue-like material make pre-keratin filaments together to for bundles of fibrous protein: keratin  Compare keratinocytes from stratum granulosum and stratum corneum:  Stratum corneum: keratinocytes have no organelles or nucleus  Further from stratum granulosum becomes epidermis (epithelium cells avascular: need nourishment from underlying connective tissue)  Keratinocyte in stratum corneum far from dermis, lack proper nutrition o goes through programmed cell death: Apoptosis  Nucleus and organelles degenerates 6  CELL DIES WITHOUT RUPTURING CELL  MAJOR change between keratinocytes in granulosum to corneum layers  Shedding due to friction at stratum corneum  Dandruff: dander-stratum corneum cells being shed  Callus: thickening of stratum corneum due to friction o Stratum Lucidum: (Thick skin ONLY)  Release of keratohyaline granules will start in the lucidum and continues in the corneum  Epidermis: Stratified Squamous Epithelial Tissue o Keratinized stratified squamous epithelial tissue  Dermis: connective tissue o Ground substance, fibers, cellular elements o Keep in mind cellular elements from connective tissue Chapter 4  Especially: macrophages Refer to Figure 5.3 Light micrograph of the dermis (page 154) o Papillary layer: small region right under epidermis  Loose alveolar connective tissue  Dermal papillae: finger-like projecting areas  Usually house different structures: o Blood capillaries o Free nerve endings: pain receptors 7  Sometimes rest on top of a region of dermis naturally higher causing higher epidermal/dermal ridges: friction ridge  Skin markings: o Reticular layer: dense irregular connective tissue  Skin markings: Chapter 5: The Integumentary System Announcements: o Scantrons returned next week  Wednesday labs canceled o All other labs will continue as normal Refer to Figure 5.1 Skin Structures (page 151)  Dermis made of 2 connective tissues o Papillary layer: small region right under epidermis  Loose alveolar connective tissue  All structures of loose alveolar connective tissue present: ground substance, fibers, cellular elements o Fibroblasts, white blood cells, macrophage nd  Macrophage: 2 line of defense st  1 line of defense is Langerhans cells in epidermis  Dermal papillae (any finger-like projection): finger-like projecting areas of dermis  Creates indentation of epidermis 8  Usually house different structures: o Blood capillaries o Free nerve endings: pain receptors o Touch receptor: Tactile or Meissner’s corpuscles (MAKE SURE TO DIFFERENTIATE FROM TACTILE CELLS)  In the thick skin have dermal papillae that are naturally located at higher regions of the dermis: dermal ridges o Sometimes rest on top of a region of dermis naturally higher causing higher epidermal ridges Refer to Figure 5.4 Dermal modifications result in characteristic skin markings (page 155) o Dermal ridges + Epidermal ridges = friction ridges  Thought to enhance the gripping capability of our hands and feet  Have the openings of the ducts of the sweat glands  Film of sweat: fingerprints o unique  Skin markings: dermal and epidermal ridges, friction ridges o Reticular layer: dense irregular connective tissue  Bundles of collagen fibers running in different directions  Skin markings: cleavage (tension lines) 9  Less dense areas or separations of the dense irregular tissue: gaps between fiber bundles o Whitish areas on figure 4.8 (e) page 132  Neck and trunk area cleavage lines run in circles  Make incision parallel to these lines to assist with short healing process o Dermis skin marking: flexure lines  Look at palm of hand: the lines at knuckles  Enfolding of dermis to allow for more free movement  Skin color o 3 pigments associated with skin color  Melanin: most important because synthesized in skin and major pigment of the skin  Synthesized in the melanocyte  Protects from UV rays o Darker pigment due to more exposure to UV rays o Relatively same number of melanocytes in everyone regardless of pigment  Melanin reduces as it moves up the epidermis due to lymphocyte  NOT RANDOM  Variety of colors runs from reddish yellow to brownish black 10  Differences between light and dark pigment: o Difference in kind of melanin o Amount of melanin granules  Tan: fades after 45 days due to continuous mitotic division pushing keratinocyte to surface and then sheds  Carotene: found in carrots  Yellow to orange  Capability to accumulate in stratum corneum o Yellowish pigment of the edges of the palms or soles of feet  Due to high consumption of plants that contain carotene  Associated with vitamin A o Skin and eyes  Hemoglobin  Oxygen binds to hemoglobin causing red color o Oxygenated hemoglobin  Blood vessels in dermis  Reddish pigment in fair pigmented people Refer to Figure 5.6 Skin appendages: structure of a hair and hair follicle (a)  Hair: strands of keratinized epidermal cells- dead cells  2 major regions 11 o Hair shaft (body): portion that projects out of the skin surface o Hair root: (in dermis) (b)  Layers of the wall of the hair: o Regardless if the shaft of the root the hair is made up of 3 concentric layers  Concentric layers: all share the same base  DON’T CONFUSE WALL OF FOLLICLE with hair walls (c)  Medulla: large irregular cells o sometimes contain pigment o Typically contain air bubbles or air spaces  Cortex: surrounds the medulla o Flat elongated cells o Cortical cells in colored hair contain the pigment of the hair  Grey or white hair: cortical cells contain most air bubbles and spaces  Cuticle: single layer of cells o In the deeper portion of root: cells contain nucleus Keep in mind for  Keratinization is still occurring in cells in the root EXAM o In the shaft portion: cells have no nuclei due to apoptosis  Keratinization is complete when cuticle reaches shaft 12  Cells in shaft overlap each other: like roof shingles  Avoids tangling and matting of hair  Structure of the hair follicle: surrounds the root ONLY o Invaginated inward in the dermis  Pulls part of the epidermis and dermis downward  Connective tissue root sheath: outermost layer: made of dermal tissue  Glassy membrane: basal lamina serving as basement membrane 13


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