AHS 102 Week 6 Notes
AHS 102 Week 6 Notes AHS 102
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Gardner on Monday February 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to AHS 102 at Ball State University taught by Natalie E Phillips in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see History of Art Survey 2 in Art History at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 02/22/16
AHS 102 Week 6 Notes High Renaissance Cont. Raphael o Died at about 37 from a “sudden illness” – probably from an STD o Vasari wrote about him; was very polite and professional; used a lot of assistants, very efficient – patrons loved him o The Stanza della Segnatura, in the Vatican Was originally a library – each wall represents a different field of knowledge Theocracy, Poetry, Law, Philosophy The School of Athens (Philosophy) – on test o Plato and Aristotle – having a conversation Plato looks like Leonardo o Heraclitus – ancient mathematician, off by himself Supposed to be Michaelangelo – same grumpy personality o Interlocutor – only figure looking at us Face of Raphael o Figures chatting with each other, learning stuff o Very geometrical composition; characteristic of High Renaissance (Vitruvius saw geometry underlying everything) o Madonna and Child Images Was extremely good at making these, was the go-to person Christ looks like a baby; Mary looks motherly and affectionate Sometimes shown with his cousin, John the Baptist The Sistine Madonna Two cherubs at the bottom have become part of pop culture Often interpreted as an Assumption of the Virgin story o Story of the Virgin’s death o Taken both body and soul into Heaven and her son comes to greet her – but Christ is usually a man in these scenes St. Sixtus and St. Barbara Virgin Mary almost always seen wearing red and blue Red = earth, blue = heavens Is in between the two, a motherly figure that we can relate to Madonna of the Meadows Raphael known for the richness and clarity of his colors Mary, Christ, and John the Baptist Atmospheric perspective Christ child not quite steady on his legs yet Also uses pyramidal composition – order & balance MANNERISM 1530-1600 OR 16 TH CENTURY New style emerges, artists didn’t want to be compared to Michaelangelo/Leonardo o Start to challenge the purpose, conventions of art Nymph, Benvenuto Cellini o No Christian references here o Made for Francis I, located at the top of a grand staircase o Mix of low relief and high relief o Compare to Michaelangelo’s sculptural figures Distorts the representation of the body – very elongated Torso looks very stiff o Hints at a shift away from realism that will come to a peak in the early 20 century o Inappropriate sexual suggestion between the nymph and the stage Mannerist artists liked making you feel uncomfortable, like messing around with images, especially religious Assumption of the Virgin, Correggio o Painted on the inside of a domed surface, Parma Cathedral (don’t need to know) o Compare to Ceiling of Palazzo Ducale (Mantegna) o Creates a dizzying feeling in the viewer, chaotic, asymmetrical o Mary very foreshortened, being lifted up into Heaven by hundreds of angels o Angels’ bodies weirdly elongated o Figures not elegant, awkwardly and clumsily arranged o Peter and some other saints waiting on the clouds o Christ looks as if he is falling down towards his mother Robe coming up, can see the bottoms of his feet – unflattering, awkward angle o Not very respectable, pushing the boundaries of religious representation Breaking away from the rules and tradition of before Remember that in Hell scenes, earlier artists went crazy because of the unusual freedom Descent from the Cross, Jacopo Pontormo o Moment of sadness o Compare to Raphael’s Crucifixion o Garish colors, looks weirdly washed out in some areas, colors clash with each other o Christ’s body distorted o Guy at the bottom kneeling unrealistically; shirt color looks like flesh Parmigianino o Self-Portrait in a Convex Mirror, Parmigianino Compare to Mantegna’s Dead Christ Interest in distortion of the figure o Madonna of the Long Neck, Parmigianino A lot going on Resembles a pieta The baby looks disproportionately big, and he also looks dead (pale, limp) Mary is kind of holding the child, but not really Her gesture seems vain No motherly instinct Looks like royalty Jewels on head (as opposed to on the throne) Long fingers Clothes more revealing: sexualizing Virgin Mary = uncomfortable (“wet look drapery”) Odd illusion with the columns in the background Several on the bottom Merges into one on the top o Palazzo del Te, Giulio Romano At first look, classical and high renaissance appearance Pediment, triglyphs, “ribbon” around top The unusual feature is that the triglyphs on the palace “drop down” every third item in the pattern Purposely confusing The Pediment No sculpture Looks “bricked over,” like the sculpture is blocked even though there was none to begin with “Blind Entrances” look like doors, but are more like alcoves Confusing to where the entrance is THE RENAISSANCE OUTSIDE OF ITALY; 1500-1600 OR 16 CENTURY I. The Reformation a. Martin Luther i. Split the church over the sale of indulgences (payment to the church to forgive sin) b. Prominent in Germany i. Northern Germany = Protestant; Southern Germany = Catholic Church ii. Protestant churches/art = Simpler; Catholic art = motivating the viewer to be spiritual by providing a “glimpse of heaven” II. Work to Know: The Isenheim Altarpiece by Mathias Grünewald [Catholic Example] a. At the hospital chapel of the monastery of St. Anthony b. St. Anthony famous for curing gangrene, or St. Anthony’s fire as it was called i. Gangrene = body rotting c. Altarpiece closed i. Bright, vibrant colors (especially red) ii. Figures diplay extreme emotion – connecting with audience through pathos iii. Christ’s blood symbolized with the lamb and the chalice iv. Christ on cross looks to be contorted, in extreme pain 1. Depicted as having St. Anthony’s fire too – trying to connect with specific audience at the hospital 2. Christ’s arm would also appear to become disconnected as the altarpiece opens. a. Connecting with the audience further because amputations were a common way to “cure” St. Anthony’s fire d. Altarpiece open i. Bright, cheery colors. Joyful mood as opposed to the darkness and suffering of the paintings when the altarpiece is closed ii. Resurrection scene 1. Joyful, Christ bursting out of the tomb triumphantly 2. Meant to give hope to the suffering audience e. Altarpiece back i. Life of St. Anthony 1. The background (wilderness almost looks surreal) ii. Temptation of St. Anthony 1. Demons physically attacking the one being tempted – never been shown like that before 2. One demon appears to have St. Anthony’s fire as well III. New Artist: Albrecht Dürer [Protestant] a. In the previous chapter, we looked at Self Portrait by this artist b. Work to Know: The Fall of Man by Albrecht Dürer i. Etching (black and white). As a whole, this piece doesn’t care about color ii. Excellent shading in this piece (hard to do in etching) iii. Shows the peaceable kingdom (all animals friendly with each other) 1. Moment just before Adam and Eve ate the fruit 2. Viewer knows the prey and predator about to become a reality iv. Connecting to intellect rather than emotions IV. Work to Know: Netherlandish Proverbs by Peter Brueghel the Elder a. Looks like a normal Dutch village at first glance b. When the viewer looks closer, all of the people are doing very strange things i. Acting out common Dutch Proverbs from the time c. “Ambitious Idiot” i. Trying to do the impossible ii. Wearing one shoe, holding a knife iii. Pushing against a brick wall with his head d. “To Marry Under the Broomstick” i. A window in a home – can see two people kissing under a broomstick ii. Unmarried couple living together e. “She puts the blue cloak on her husband” i. Deceiving him, adulterous wife ii. Wears a red dress (passion, sexuality); showing cleavage iii. Putting a blue cloak on her husband f. “False Messiah” i. A pig wearing a nun’s headdress ii. Pretending to be pious in public. Hypocrisy V. New Artist: Hieronymous Bosch a. Disliked the Church for personal reasons i. Pushed the limits in his art – very bizarre b. Adoration of the Magi by Bosch i. Tryptic (3pt altarpiece) ii. Closed, grisaille paintings iii. Open 1. Magi coming to see the Christ child 2. Other people climbing trees outside manger and on roof to see 3. “Caricatured” people within the stable a. A fancy looking adult watching i. Looks like Christ, actually the Antichrist ii. Armageddon foreshadowed in the background with two armies charging at each other (battle between Christ and Antichrist) c. Garden of Earthly Delights by Bosch i. Altarpiece closed 1. Shows earth as flat, spherical atmosphere ii. Altarpiece open 1. Left = Eden a. Christ introducing Adam and Eve b. Strange looking animals (hybrids, fantasy) i. Implies that all animals didn’t make it onto the ark c. Mountains forming bizarre shapes d. Some animals not getting along i. Anti-peaceable kingdom e. Pink form in front – looks like a fountain i. Made from alchemists’ tools ii. Considered blasphemous iii. Owl within the fountain 1. Ambiguous symbol; can mean wisdom or darkness (nocturnal animal) f. Swamp i. More strange animals ii. More anti-peaceable kingdom displayed iii. Platypus-merperson hybrid 1. It’s reading 2. Implies that Adam and Eve were just created and some creatures have more knowledge 3. Aka mankind not so great 2. Middle = Representation of Earth before the great flood a. Looks happy, not a dark representation of sin b. Three big alchemy shapes in the background (mountains?) c. People riding animals, having fun, not a race d. Huge birds i. Feeding humans berries ii. Many people in the water eating out of an enormous berry 1. Fruit/berries = sexuality 2. Depicts an orgy e. Many egg forms i. Some people in eggs (represents sex) f. Person cuddling with a big owl (ambiguous symbol again) g. Flowers coming out of a female figure’s genitals (blatant sexual symbol) h. Guy with blueberry for head i. All comes together in a bizarre way to represent rampant sexuality 3. Right = hell a. Tortures b. First time part of hell depicted as cold – one figure ice skating nude for all eternity c. Fire in the background d. Presided over by a strange creature (bird head, wearing a bucket as a crown) e. Eating people and pooping them out f. Another pig dressed as a nun (corruption in the church) g. Giant hollowed out man h. People being tortured on musical instruments i. Music associated with lovemaking (being punished for sin) ii. One guy has music painted on his rear that you can read (very detailed)
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