Week 1 Exam 2
Week 1 Exam 2 BSCI - 30156 - 002
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BSCI - 30156 - 002
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessica Brown on Monday February 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSCI - 30156 - 002 at Kent State University taught by Chi-hua Groff (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see ELEMENTS OF GENETICS in Biological Sciences at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 02/22/16
Genetics Week 1 of Exam 2 Material Epistasis: several different loci interacting from different places on one trait (around the genome) Very important to the genome Makes studying of genetics very hard o Ex.) autism Pleiotropy: Variation of single locus (master regulators). Normally deeply evolutionarily based Critical functions Conserved throughout the majority of living things o Protein production—effects many species Cranium and pelvis example Exceptions to Mendel 1. Alleles do not necessarily separate independently a. Due to the genetic distance of loci i. Closer together they are, the less likely they are to be independent of each other ii. Law of independent assortment is violated Chi Square Helps us understand whether the genes follow Mendelian inheritance or not Degrees of freedom: (# of groups – 1) Null hypothesis: No difference between expected and observed o Chi value > statistic reject o Chi value < statistic accept If no crossing over occurs you will get parentals (nonrecombinants) If crossing over does occur you will have recombinants (different from the parents) Practice some of these problems—they will be important for the exam Allele Frequency: what we are concerned with Constantly shifting through time Temperature variation can influence gene expression Siamese cat/rabbit example Genetic Distance Different then physical distance o There is a relationship between genetic distance and physical distance, but they are still different Helps us determine recombinant amount Alleles can travel together do/did not cross over because they had close genetic distances o These are called parentals o Can be good for genetic mapping Bad because two deleterious loci can travel together Synteny groups: across a species and are conserved from a common ancestor o Human and mouse o Cat and tiger Calculating Genetic Distance Dihybrid cross: 9:3:3:1 ratio S+ can be another way to display a dominant allele. o S would be considered a recessive then Parentals: No crossing over has occurred Recombinants: crossing over has occurred Map distance= (#of recombinants/total # offspring)x100 o Less than 50 = small enough to be linked (travel together) o More than 50 = far apart, follow mendels rules o 1 map unit= 1% recombination o Double recombination is really rare
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