Class Note for MUSC 309 with Professor Schwartz at KU (4)
Class Note for MUSC 309 with Professor Schwartz at KU (4)
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Date Created: 02/06/15
MUSC 309 Lecture 5 Country Music Gospel Folk and the Latin Tinge I Country music A Least acknowledged and perhaps least noticeable in uence on rock music B AngloAmerican folk music essentially imported from British isles l Preserved with little outside in uence in Appalachian region of country 2 Does change over time a Certain instruments vored ddle banjo guitar b High nasal singing style c Called oldtime music C Commercial version country music D Two types 1 Adheres closely to mountain traditions Carter family 2 Hillbilly music a Heavily in uenced by popular music AfricanAmerican folk music jazz and blues b Jimmie Rodgers E Mountain tradition 1 Carter family EX Wildwood Flower a Strophic form each verse AABA b Guitar style of Maybelline Carter quotthumbbrushquot style i Melody played on lower strings ii Chords played on upper strings iii Adopted by many country later folk musicians iv Already used by some blues musicians 2 White gospel a Religious songs in mountain style b Vocal harmonies in uenced by Sacred Harp or shape note singing i Popular method of vocal instruction in rural areas ii Taught ha1monizing melodies at 3rd above the melody c Called tight vocal harmonies d EX Bales Brothers You Can t Go Halfway and Get In F Jimmie Rodgers EX Waiting for a Train 1 De nite in uences from popular music jazz and blues 2 Especially the latter 3 blue yodel very similar to some regional blues hollers blues in form and style EX Blue Yodel ll 4 Same mixture of in uences found in nearly all early rock and roll singers a Elvis for example known first as a quothillbillyquot singer b And country in uence on Chuck Berry undeniable G At about same time in West another country hybrid taking shape 1 By way of cowboy music 2 Cowboy songs collected as early as 1910 3 First big singing cowboy quotstarquot Gene Autry 4 Eventually cowboy songs fused with dance music jazz blues in Western swing a Innovator ddler Bob Wills b Through broadcasts on GrandOld Opry television very in uential c Fusion very clear in Guitar Rag i Pedal steel guitar ii Heavy twobeat iii But accents on back beat H Major employer of country singers were beer joints called honkytonks 1 Rough saloons loud environments 2 EX Your Cheatin Heart a Foxtrot beat b Backbeat c Very emotional singing style d Electric and pedal steel guitar I From HonkyTonk short step to modern CountryWestem music 1 Oldtime music not quite as popular 2 Reemerges as folk music as part of folk music revival J Folk Music revival 1 Combination of factors 2 Largely centered in public works projects of depression 3 One involved collecting songs and stories of older Americans to document culture of late 19th century 4 Another John LomaX and son Alan go to south to record African American folk songs 5 At same time Woody Guthrie combines honkytonk music cowboy songs oldtime music and pop songs into something completely new 6 All of these in uences come together combine with Union building activities labor rallies in NYC 7 Immediately brings to rock a Music as vehicle for social commentary b Aspects of guitar style of Woody Guthrie Largest in uence comes later when Bob Dylan enters tail end of folk music scene in NYC revitalizes and brings into rock 9 Example Woody Guthrie quotThis Land is Your Landquot 00 11 Gospel A Combination of blues and church hymns B First songs in the genre by Thomas A Dorsey recognized as father of the genre C Large mixed choirs not the only ensembles that performed gospel l Quartets also largely in uential 2 Quickly developed unique sound a A capella singing b Usually one member of quartet takes lead others accompany by i Imitating instruments ii Vocalizing with ooohs or shoobop or other sounds vocal percussion c EX Golden Gate Gospel Quartet Golden Gate Gospel Train i Backing vocalists imitating train ii Swinging eight beat feel iii Provided by riffs of backing vocals iv Highly syncopated d EX quotJesus I ll Never Forgetquot i Accompaniment of a bass guitar and piano very soft but there ii Bass guitar hitting backbeats iii Most evident and important feature is lead singer aa Not only because Sam Cooke who becomes soul singer in the 60s bb But quality of the vocal line cc Same type of rhythmic freedom as heard from Louis Armstrong e But seems to soar rather than oat over backing vocals iv Clearly in uenced by blues aa Improvisations on melody line bb Emphatic interj ections cc melismas stretching word or syllable over number of notes D Same style heard in probably greatest of the female gospel singers Mahalia Jackson 1 EX Move On Up A Little Higher 2 Vocal style clearly in uenced by blues a Remind you of anyone b Aretha Franklin other RampB soul singers up through Whitney Houston Alicia Keys in uenced by Mahalia Jackson 3 Employs melismas 4 Harmonies a From spirituals and Methodist Baptist hymns b Combination of blue notes pentatonic melodies and Western harmonies accounts for distinctive sound of Gospel c Frequently coopted in rock music esp soul 5 Accompanying instruments a Electric keyboard b Hammond organ i Electronic organ developed in 1930s ii Frequently employed in gospel music of this period iii Adopted by rock artists as groovy new sound in mid 60s 111 Other in uences A American Folk B quotThe Latin Tingequot 1 Jazz and later rock also contain hints of Latin American musical styles 2 Most popularized in this country as dance crazes 3 Fusions between European music African in uences and native musics of individual countries of Central and South America 4Rumba a Dance popularized in 1930s b Introduced by Cuban bandleader Don Azpiazu EX El Manisero c Opens door for other AfroCuban music 6 Mambo a Dance fad created in NY in 1940s bBased on AfroCuban rhythms c Injected two elements into American musical miX i Percussion instruments like conga drums bongos ii And the clave rhythm aa Often played by claves another Cuban percussion instrument aka son bb Analogous to backbeat in AfricanAmerican in uenced music cc Pattern of accents that run contrary to beat e l 2 3 4 I 2 3 4 l 2 3 4 l 2 3 4 C C C C C a Clap pattern until can do it with some ease b Then try clapping along with Carambola