Learning Notes PSY 1013
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kristen Ward on Monday February 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 1013 at Mississippi State University taught by Alison Patev in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 02/22/16
Learning o Any behavior or knowledge change as result of an experience Two Types of Learning o Cognitive o Associative- learning by pairing different stimuli and responses Pavlov o Russian Physiologist o Studied spit and eating habits of dogs Classical Conditioning o A type of learning in which a reflexive response that is originally triggered by one stimulus occurs with a different new stimulus after learning to associate the new stimulus with a response. Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) o A thing that causes a reflexive response Unconditioned Response (UCR) o The reaction to the stimulus Neutral Stimulus (NS) o A stimulus that does not cause a response originally Conditioned Stimulus (CS) o Conditioned Response (CR) o Original neutral stimulus that causes a reflexive response once it has been paired with the unconditioned stimulus Acquisition o The phase of classical conditioning in which the neutral stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus are paired Extinction o The weakening of a conditioned response; generally occurs after the neutral stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus have not been paired together for some time Spontaneous Recovery o The reoccurrence of the condition response Generalization o The response is going to recur to the stimuli similar to the condition stimulus Discrimination o When the response is made to the original stimulus but not to similar stimuli Examples Little Albert- conditioned emotional response o A learned emotional or physiological response Fear Response o Preparedness-the biological predisposition to react a certain way to a particular group of stimuli Taste Aversions o Having a bad experience with certain food Fetishes o Sexual attraction or fixation on a certain object Operant Conditioning A type of learning based on consequences Reinforcement (reinforcers) o Consequence that increases the likelihood that a behavior will occur Primary- an reinforcer that satisfies basic needs Secondary- a reinforcer that you learn the value of Token Economics o A system where you are give tokens are you can trade those tokens in for something you want Law of Effect o When Outcomes that are satisfying, we will repeat the behavior that got us there Operant Chambers o Boxes that have a lever that a rat would learn to press the lever and food would come out Punishment (Punishers) o Something that decreases the likelihood of a behavior o Punisher- The thing that decreases a behavior Positive Reinforcement o Adding something good to increase behavior Negative Reinforcement o Taking something bad away to increase behavior Avoidance learning- acting in a way that avoids the possibility that something bad happening Escape learning- Something bad is present and you attempt Positive Punishment o Adding something bad to decrease behavior o Ex. Spanking when you did something bad Negative Punishment o Taking something good away to decrease a behavior o Ex. Taking away your car after broken curfew Extinction o The weakening of a response when reinforcement is no longer available Generalization o The response occurs to a new but similar stimulus Discriminative Stimulus o A queue that lets you know you are about to be reinforced Discrimination o The response occurs to one stimulus but not other ones Shaping o When a specific response is created in a step by step manner Schedules of Reinforcement Continuous o A behavior will be reinforced every time it is done Partial (intermittent) o A behavior is reinforced after a certain number of times or after a set amount of time Fixed Ratio o Reinforcement will occurs after a set number of responses Variable Ratio o Reinforcement will occur after a random number of responses Fixed Interval o Reinforcement occurs after a set amount of time Variable Interval o Reinforcement occurs after a random amount of time
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