Class Note for MUSC 309 with Professor Schwartz at KU (5)
Class Note for MUSC 309 with Professor Schwartz at KU (5)
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Date Created: 02/06/15
MUSC 309 Lectures 12 and 13 The Beatles I Without serious competition as most important rock group in history A Conservative and innovative B Impacted every pop and rock artist that followed C Two big questions to consider 1 What makes Beatles sound unique 2 How did it change over time D Another 7 where did they come from 7 musically What in uences can be heard in their music 1 Key to uniqueness of sound 2 First rock group to absorb multitude of in uences and integrate all into music 3 So 7 need to know understand in uences 4 Familiar with some but others 7 and environment that created Beatles 7 exclusively British II Part of larger movement of British Invasion A English rock groups become popular in Us B British culture 1950s 1 Marked by decline and boredom postindustrial blight 2 Economic hardship a Widespread destruction in WWII b Large number of singleincome households c Wartime rationing continued until 1954 3 Class consciousness 7 pretty impossible to move up 4 Idle middle class with poor economic prospects rebellious teens 5 Rock and roll perfect vehicle for angst C English record companies begin to manufacture rock and roll singers but generally bad 1 Lack of familiarity with roots of rock results in pretty sterile copies of American groups 2 Much akin to BrillBuilding teenidol phase of early rock and roll 3 quotQuickly reverted to being uptempo teenage pop singersquot Chalmers 38 a Ex Cliff Richards 7 biggest English rock star b Listen to excerpt from Move It 4 Worse number of popular dance bands create quotrock 39n roll combosquot a Extension of white dance music culture avored with in uence of largely white covers of RampB tunes b Typical lineup sax guitar piano drums and vocalist D In some creates desire to look elsewhere for new music 7 particularly young guitar players who admired Elvis and especially Chuck Berrry 1 Look to records of country blues artists starting to be released in UK 2 Particularly associated with revival of traditional Dixieland jazz E Sparks skif e craze that sweeps England from 56 to 58 1 English version syncopated mixture of jazz folk and blues elements a Book says mixture of Dixieland jazz and country blues b Decent way to consider 2 Instrumentation mostly cheap easily accessible a acoustic guitar b washboard c quotteachestquot bass d other optional instruments such as kazoo 3 Primarily in uenced by black folk artists a Leadbelly b Josh White 4 Attracted young guitar players 5 Biggest artist Lonnie Donegan a Has lst skif e quothitquot with Leadbelly quotRock Island Linequot i Released as a single in 1956 ii One of 1st British records to make American Top 20 b Play eX 7 start at 115 c Claims it was the quotsingle record that introduced AfroAmerican music to Britainquot exaggerateed i But probably did introduce to many people for 1st time ii And popularized the acoustic guitar F Skif e craze largely responsible for British rock acts of the 1960s 1 ElVis popularized rock 2 Donegan made it seem playable III Personal in uences A John Lennon 19401980 1 Learned to play guitar after hearing ElVis 2 Primarily instructed by mother who played ukulele 3 Formed skif e group the Quarrymen at age 17 4 Primary in uences a country blues b trad jazz c rockabilly speci cally Buddy Holly B Paul McCartney 1942 l Grew up in musical household 7 father amateur musician 2 Musical education from father a Also took piano lessons b And learned a little trumpet c Took up guitar in late teens 3 Primary musical in uences a English popular music b Dance hall music c trad jazz d rock and roll rockabilly RampB C George Harrison 19432001 1 In uences a Dance hall music b jazz c American country music Jimmie Rodgers specifically Made him want to play guitar d Skif e e Rock and roll rockabilly 2 Friend of father s taught him to play guitar D Ringo Starr Richard Starkey 1940 1 Started drumming at age 14 when hospitalized for tuburculosis 2 In uences a Country music esp Gene Autry b Big Bandjazz c skif e d English pop e blues III Periods A Book divides into four roughly equal stages 1 Beatlemania 196264 2 Dylaninspired seriousness 196566 3 Psychedelia late 19661967 4 Return to Roots 196870 B Good a way as any to consider career but need to add one more 7 Early Career 1 Book says had unique sound right from the start 2 Not exactly 3 The Quarry MenThe Beatles performed for five years before first major releases 4 In uences repertoire then shaped sound IV Early career A Gigs in Liverpool B Hamburg 1 Manager who ran most of big Liverpool groups incl Beatles was friends with club owner in Hamburg 2 Many acts from the city hired for several weeks or months to play at various clubs 3 Beatles played Hamburg number of times between 1960 and 1963 show transparency a Expected to play 67 hours a night 6 nights a week b Had to i Know a lot of songs ii Be able to respond to requests iii Learn to quickly absorb adapt and reproduce anything to fill time 4 Playlists though reveal core in uences a Elvis b Buddy Holly and the Crickets c Little Richard d Chuck Berry e Eddie Cochran i May not be familiar with ii Fusion of energy of rockabilly crispness of country music and Elvis vocals 7 Buddy Holly Elvis Carl Perkins iii To my ears primary in uence on vocal style not sound of Paul McCartney iv Play some of Twentieth Floor 5 Much of early material closely modeled upon these in uences III Beatlemania 7 to 1964 A Assume you know of the phenomenon so won t go into it 1 Height of group s fame in England conquest of US 2 Begins with release of Please Please Me in UK in Jan of 1963 3 First public mobs in Oct of that year 4 Signi cant date Dec 26 1963 a I Want to Hold Your Hand I Saw Her Standing There released in US b Hits 1 in matter of weeks c Tops chart for seven weeks d Marks beginning of the British Invasion B Albums 1 Please Please Me 1 2 With the Beatles 3 Hard Days Night 4 Beatles for Sale 5 Help C Please please me 1 In uences a Roy Orbison b Bing Crosby song Please c Carl Perkins Lend Me Your Comb i Harmonies shape seem to be from this song ii Group admits was a favorite on Cavern play list iii Play some of Beatles version from Anthology 2 Oblique harmonic descent a Lennon stays static b McCartney descends 3 Some complex harmonic turns 4 Favorite Beatle sound speci cally Harrison 7 guitar lines in octaves a No real precedent for b Chuck Berry double note style but never playes in octaves c Reason for the 12 string Rickenbacker 7 easier d Many other British acts pick this up 5 Forceful drumming 6 Protopunk bass line 7 why D I Wanna Hold Your Hand 7 rst U S 1 l Rhythm a Backbeat b Style beat c Other Variant of clave rhythm in claps d Layers of rhythm common in early style 7 didn t have drummer until 1961 e Note the rhythmic effect created by opening riff i Tap foot ii Don t know where downbeat really is until vocals enter 2 Form a Again quite typical of early style b Verse and refrain with prominent hook i Or strophic with contrasting section in middle ii Frequently have tag line or coda 3 Vocal harmonies 4 Solo vocal style a Falsetto shouts b Melismas c Shouting 5 Melody a Rising at end of verse into falsetto 7 leads into refrain b B section smoother more lyrical c Melody writing another hallmark of Beatles style i McCartney specialty ii Lennon songs generally less tuneful more static 6 Texture a Note when harmonized when not b And style of drumming 7 Also note no solos E Twist and Shout 1 Vocal 7 incredibly in uential 2 Harder edge than most music out there esp in US 3 Revisit chronology a By 1960 rock and roll had been for the most part taken over by corporations b most blues and country elements disappear from rock and roll c Motown has first hit in 1960 with Shop Around i Motown sound in general not heavily in uenced by blues ii Smooth re ned sound preferred by Berry Gordy d StaXsoul sound doesn t even hit RampB charts until 196465 4 Reintroduces shouting to rock music 5 As well as badly needed reminder of RampB blues 6 Compare to Isley Brothers version F Sum up 7 early period style characteristics 1 Emulation of rockabilly rock and roll RampB idols 7 rock and roll band 2 Number of songs covers or modeled after songs that formed early repertoire 3 Recordings basically live 7 little studio production 4 3 part harmonies 5 Woo Yeah and other such vocal embellishments 6 Largely romantic lyrics 11 Mature period or Dylanin uenced 196566 A Albums O Rubber Soul Soul StaX soul O Revolver B Singles We Can Work It Out Day Tripper Paperback writer Yellow Submarine Eleanor Rigby e in uence of Bob Dylan 1 Your songs aren t ABOUT anything 2 Drugs 7 particularly marijuana D Characteristics of mature period 1 Expanded palate oftone colors a Sitar 7 Indian string instrument i introduced to West by Ravi Shankar ii Both Byrds and Beatles employ in songs in 1965 b Orchestral instruments i Strings 7 but not wall of sound strings ii Trumpet clarinet iii used sparingly iv Or in case of Eleanor Rigby in place of band c Even guitars i Employed 12 different guitars in studio ii Slightly different sounds to each iii And made modi cations to change further 2 Willingness to depart from traditional ensemble 3 Increased role of producer George Martin a Becomes collaborative part of ensemble b Key in creating Beatles sound c Starting to take advantage of multitrack recording i Each part recorded separately ii Then mixed into master d More overdubbing of vocal guitar parts 4 More complicated harmonically 5 Subject matter of songs changes a More social commentary b And personal re ection D Norwegian Wood 1 Slow waltz 7 3 beats per measure 2 Form A A instrumental 7 sitar guitarsitar A A B B A A A A B B A A A 3 Gentle pop vocal style 9999 C a No in uence of blues gospel b Different than earlier songs 4 Thin texture 5 Modal not tonal orientation a Different kind of scale older b Not major or minor so lacks ha1monic direction drive of blues rockabilly 5 Storytelling song but a Intensely personal b Deals with free love 6 Endweighting Does instrumentation texture shape song 7 How much of the producer do you sense here E Drive My Car 1 Point out genius of Beatles borrowing 2 it IS a soul riff ala Redding a In fact it s taken directly from Respect b but it doesn t sound like it s trying to be a soul song c Something new is created 3 Other in uences III The Psychedelic period 196667 A Huge cultural changes taking place by 1965 1 Civil rights movement in full ower 2 As were free speech movements early protests of Vietnam war 3 And new drug beginning to lter through the country 7 LSD 4 Creating new artistic and cultural movement 7 psychedelia a distortion of reality b new emphasis on imagination creativity c Individual perception over rules norms of society d New nonWestem viewpoints were attractive 5 One of the musical re ections of psychedelia was acid rock a Rock inspired by LSD Eastern music b Loose improvisatory style incorporating many freeform solos c Dronelike foundation i Drone 7 long sustained note often tonic held for long duration ii Component of Indian classical music most Arabic music iii Provides harmonic foundation thickens texture d Modallybased harmonies 7 lack of harmonic drive e Often lacks a definitive beat f Freeform lyrics g First acid rock song 7 The Byrds Eight Miles High i Intro aa Thick dense texture bb Heavy reverb on all particularly guitar cc Static quality dd Riffbased but riffs repeated expanded 7 robbed of momentum ii Vocals 7 3 part harmonies some reverb iii Droning directionless guitar solos at times cut in on vocals iv Lyrics that might or might not be about drugs V To my ear only partly acid rock vi Play B Beatles burned out from touring resolved to retire from road after lled commitments 1 Never toured again and only played live once more after early 1966 2 Instead focused attention nearly fulltime on recording 3 Increased attention to production careful composition was already in the wind 4 Also in uenced by Beach Boys Pet Sounds a Brian Wilson suffered nervous breakdown in 1966 had to stop touring i Replaced on road by other musicians ii Group continued to tour b Wilson focuses whole attention on song writing producing c Result was totally new kind of album i Theme album aa all songs treat same basic subject bb Hopes dreams worries and anxieties of growing up ii Very much a product of the studio aa Very heavily produced bb Spectorin uenced iii Employs lots of new sounds nontraditional instruments d Brian followed with bestselling single and most creative rock song to that date Good Vibrations i Put up transparency ii No intro 7 straight into lyrics with high voice treated with heavy echo aa Accomp by repeated short organ chords one per bar bb and sparse bass line that repeats every two measures cc Both sounds engineered 7 lots of reverb iii Third line of vocals 7 drums tambourine added aa Don t really emphasize beat or backbeat bb Touches of rhythmic texture here and there iv Four hard drum shots lead into v B section 7 chorus aa Low vocals replace high ones bb Accomp by theremin 7 electronic instrument cc After 4 bars doowop in uenced backing vocals and tambourine only percussion in B section on backbeat enter dd Less heavily produced than A section vi A section 7 2quotd verse vii B section repeated viii C extension ofB aa Sudden change of texture bb Piano modified to sound like jangly barroom piano cc Alternates chords with bass dd Drums and tambourine add more tone colors but don t emphasize beat or backbeat ee Several layers of vocals added singing vowel sounds ix D section aa Texture suddenly breaks leaving only sustained chords on church organ sounding keyboard bb Maracas establish slower tempo before vocals enter cc Midrange vocal line dd Repeated bass and backing vocals added ee Repeats again high organ line added ff Ends with a little burst of B x E section aa Bass high vocals with heavy echo bb Jointed shortly by second vocal melody cc Creates polyphony dd Other voices enter with other melodic ideas that intertwine ee Then returns to second half of B with usual instruments 5 Beatles carried example of Pet Sounds with them into studio D Characteristics of period 1 Very experimental a Creating new sounds and effects b New styles forms methods of composition c New in uences 7 avantgarde classical music acid rock Beach Boys 2 Surrealisticpsychedelic lyrics often drawn from impersonal sources 3 Album takes precedence over single a Those seen as separate entitites b Most singles from this period never released on album i Penny Lane ii Strawberry Fields Forever iii Hey Jude iv Lady Madonna 4 Abandoning traditional roles in band a John primarily plays keyboards b Paul using overdubs playing both bass and rhythm guitar C Sgt Peppers l Considered the first concept album a Album in which all of the songs a1ranged around a central concept or story b Debatable whether Sgt Pepper s really is i Begins with whimsical tune of Paul s 7 Sgt Pepper s Lonely Heart s Club Band ii Reprised near the end iii Other songs don t really have anything to do with iv But still seem unified if for no other reason than framed by Sgt Pepper songs V Which is enough c Created new idea of what an album could be 2 Highly produced a Extensive manipulation of sounds tracks b Lots of overdubbing mixing down and overdubbing again 7 only 4 tracks 3 Many songs acid rock a Beatles turned on to LSD by Roger McGuinn and David Crosby b Certainly knew Eight Miles High i Originally Six miles high 7 cruising altitude for jets ii Renamed in homage to Eight Days a Week c Lucy in the Sky With Diamonds i Intro on electric organ with very heavy reverb 7 thick feeling ii Verse 7 vocals dronelike bass echo and overdub on vocals aa Note change in second half bb More active bass line outlining triplets foreshadowed in first half cc Shuf e rhythm on cymbols dd Echo on vocals increased guitar doubles ee Different harmonies as well ff Four even hits on tomtoms lead into iii Chorus 7 Lucy in the Sky aa Meter change 7 duple to triple bb Never been done before cc Harder sound dd reinforcing vocals on last repetition ee Guitar 7 or active bass iv Back to verse v Chorus vi Halfverse vii Tag line 7 Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds viii Lennon claims not drug lyrics 7 you make the call 4 A Day in the Life a Stands outside Sgt Pepper frame b Form AABA but unique in that sections of all different length i 4 bar intro 7 clapping extraneous noise piano i I read the news 7 10 bars aa Sparse accompaniment bb Piano bass occasional guitar cc Maraca ii He blew his mind 7 9 bars aa Drums added iii 1 saw a film 7 11 bars aa Drums fills become more active bb More from piano iv Interlude after tag line I d love to turn you on 7 10 bars aa Piano bb Strings electronically manipulated to create crescendo into V B section 7 22 bars aa 2 bar intro piano bb Then two phrases of5 bars i Any difference ii No 7 not weighted to end of section cc 10 measure dream sequence brasses vi A section aa I saw a lm today bb lll2 bars cc Accompaniment roughly similar to vii ll measure outro 7 balances interlude not intro aa Long electronically manipulated ascent and crescendo culminating in note only dogs can hear bb Crashing piano chord with LONG dissolve c Lyrics Mysterious and poetic approach to serious topics that come together in a larger direct message to its listeners an embodiment of the central ideal for which the Beatles stood that a truly meaningful life can be had only when one is aware of one s self and one s surroundings and overcomes the status quo i Actually A sections most from Daily Mail of Dec 19 1966 ii B section started as different song by Paul IV Final period 7 Return to Roots 19681970 A Pretty good description of style 1 Decrease in experimental tendencies 2 Largely independent songwriting 7 little collaboration 3 Music in wide variety of styles 4 Rock and roll but rock that re ects musical in uences form past and present B The Beatles The White Album 1968 1 Obviously less 1 Demonstration 7 variety of in uences 2 Put back up list of early in uences on lads 3 Play excerpts from a Rocky Racoon 7 folk rock country b Honey Pie 7 English dance hall pop c Yer Blues 7 RampB d Revolution 1 rockabilly e Sexy Sadie 7 doowop e Mention Back in the USSR 7 Chuck Berry Beach Boys V Importance of the Beatles Expand possibilities of rock A Unorthodox ensembles B Demonstrate what is possible in studio C Start to shift balance of importance from single to album D Expand acceptable length of single E Expand harmonic tone color choices
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