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LEC 10

by: Alexis Fulton
Alexis Fulton

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notes from 2-22-16
Cultural Diversity in the Modern World
Renee Bonzani
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexis Fulton on Monday February 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANT 160 at University of Kentucky taught by Renee Bonzani in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 74 views. For similar materials see Cultural Diversity in the Modern World in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Kentucky.

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Date Created: 02/22/16
Dr. Renée Bonzani Lecture Outlines for ANT 160: Cultural Diversity in the Modern World  Origins of Social and Political Diversification: The Family Level •Humans are social animals. As a consequence, they create institutions that also  reproduce in time and space. •Social institutions vary according to the demographic scale of the group or communities. •Social institutions also create “identity.” This individual identity varies from the self, to  the family, to the political institutions to which the individual identifies as belonging. •Identity is based on the individual’s perception of space and time or their conception of  territoriality. This can change through time. •Remember that natural selection works at the level of the individual. It is the individual  who makes choices as to what groups she/he belongs to in order to increase her/his  reproductive success in biological terms. •The origins of social evolutions are based on the family structure ot the basic family unit •Since the beginning of food production, the continued population growth demands more  complex structures of organizations that increase in scale and complexity in relation to  the control of resources, and the reproduction of the groups. •1. Family level •We have as social institutions: kinship systems, marriage patterns, descent groups. •2. Community level •Mechanisms for promoting egalitarianism, hierarchies, positions or rights, ascribed and  achieved. •3. Inter­community level •The diversity of arrangements are based on grades from kinship to political and  economic affiliations. •These forms are bands, tribes, chiefdoms, states, and nation­states. •1. Family level: The kinship basis of social evolution •Kinship: the allocation of rights and their transmission from one generation to the next.  These rights are as diverse as. For examples, group membership, succession to office,  inheritance of poverty, locality of residence,, types of occupation, and other cultural  aspects..    1 •Basic concepts of kinship •Minimal nuclear unit: the mother and the offspring. •Nuclear family: a unit consistently usually of a married man and women and their  offspring.  •Extended family:  a unit composed of two or more nuclear families linked by  consanguineal ties. •Family by choice: male and male arrangements or female and female arrangements to  form a family unit. •Consanguinity: “same blood.” Note this can be based on biology but it can also be  “fictive.” •Affinity: relationship resulting from marriage rather than from descent from a common  ancestor.  •Cross Cousin: the child of a father’s sister or of a mother’s brother; the children of  siblings of the opposite sex are cross cousins. •Parallel Cousin: the children of siblings of the same sex. The children of a father’s  brother and a mother’s sister are parallel cousins. •Lineal relatives: relatives from the ascending or descending generation from the father’s  or mother’s lines as well as offspring.  •Lateral relatives: kin on the side of the brother and sister of the mother or the father. Inheritance rules 2 •Primogeniture: inheritance through the first born son. •Patrilineal inheritance: inheritance through the line of the father. •Matrilineal inheritance: inheritance through the line of the mother. Principles of descent •Unilineal descent: tracing of relationship through either male or female •Bilineal descent: a practices meal links q person with a group,  •Ambilineal or cognatic descent: each individual has the option of affliaiting with with  the mother or fusther.  •Patrilineal descent (may also see the term agnatic descent): •Matrilineal descent:  Mother’s brother is the main male authority. Marriage •Monogamy:  •Polygamy: multiple marriages. •Polygyny:   •Polyandry:  •Serial  monogamy: multiple marriages through time. 3 For more in­depth information see Fox, Robin. 1967.  Kinship and Marriage. Penguin  Books, Baltimore, Maryland. 4


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