Physical Geography Week 2 Notes
Physical Geography Week 2 Notes GEOG 101 001
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GEOG 101 001
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Julia Parenti on Monday February 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 101 001 at Towson University taught by Dr. Ken Barnes in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Physical Geography in Geography at Towson University.
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Date Created: 02/22/16
Physical Geography Lecture 3 System Concepts 0 Systems are either opened or closed in terms of energy andor materials 0 Matter and energy are stored and converted in systems 0 The earth can be studied as a set of overlapping systems or spheres 0 The earth is essentially a closed system With respect to materials 0 The earth is an open system With respect to energy energy is the capacity to do wor 0 Systems provide a means to gauge human impacts of the environment impacts are evaluated based upon induced changes to energy ows and material cycles over space and time System Regulation 0 Environmental systems are powered by either solar energy or geothermal energy 0 All systems are selfregulated by means of feedback to function Within specific performance levels 0 Negative Feedback forces that resist changes to systems 0 Positive Feedback forces that promotes changes to systems System Equilibrium 0 Self regulation promotes system equilibrium 0 System Equilibrium a state in Which inputs are matched by outputs Steady State Equilibrium 0 Fluctuation of system variable around a stable constant average Dynamic Equilibrium 0 Fluctuation of a system s average Complexity 0 Simple rules govern all complex systems 0 Order generated out of chaos 0 Stream system H20 positive feedback maintained by negative feedback loop Resilience 0 Ability of a system to recover form or resist change 0 2 dimensions retum to its original state to persist despite disturbances Equifinality 0 2 different means can create the same end Cycles 0 Events that recur at regular intervals Periods Time between the same points of a cycle Earths various sphere and systems are or are potentially affected by a large number of external and internal cycles Scientific Models Approximate representations or simulations of real systems highly generalized Commonly used by geographers and other environmental scientists 4 types onceptual describe general relationships about general components of systems graphic compiles or displays data in a form or pattern that readily convey meaning such as a map or climograph physical mini version of a system numerical consists of one or more math equations that describe behaviour of a system Variables can be manipulated individually or by groups to assess their effects on the systems Imposing order on the Earth Geographic Grid All absolute locations are on geographic grid Consists of 2 sets of circles that are on right angles to each other Meridian Circles aligns with earth s axis of rotations 12 of a meridian circle is a meridian a ture northsouth line Parallels circles whose planes are perpendicular to earths axis of rotation EW oriented Great and Small Circles Great Circles formed by planes that pass through the center of the earth largest circles drawn on the globe all meridian circles are great circles intersecting great circles bisect one another shortest route between any two points on earth s surface Small Circles formed by planes that do not pass through center of the earth the equator is the only great parallel circle all other parallel circles are small The Circle of Illumination Terminator Great Circle Border between day and night sweeps westward Divides earth in halves sunlight half nighttime half Orientation of circle of Illumination with respect to earths axis systematically varies through the year Rhumb LineLoxodrome line of constant compass bearing Latitude Distance from Equator NS Lines of latitude are parallels Oriented EW but measure distances NS Equator is 0 degrees and poles are 90 degrees North and South total of 180 degrees of latitude 12 circle Always state Latitude first when stating place High Lats 55 N90 oN Mid Lats 35 oN55 oN Low Lats 35 oS35 oN Mid Lats 35 oS55 oS High Lats 55 oS 90 oS Longitude Distance from Prime Meridian Longitude is distance in degrees EW of Prime Meridian lines of longitude are meridians oriented NS but measure distance EW Prime Meridian is 0 and extends to 180 E ampW total of 360 of longitude There is no natural starting or stopping point for system of longitude The prime meridian designated by an international conference in 1884 TimeKeeping Mean Solar Day The time interval between two successive passages of the noon sun over a local meridian approximately 24 hours as earth rotates on it s axis it is also revolving around the sun earths position relative to the sun changes every day Earth Rotates Eastward Rate of rotation is 15 of longitude per hour later in the day to the east earlier in the day to the west Solar Noon when the sun is at its highest position in the sky Solar vs Standard Time Zone Solar Time time based on the sun in the sky Standard time legal time for a zone of 15 of longitude wide time based on average solar time along a designated time meridian time zone extends 75 of longitude EW of time meridian Time Meridian spaced every 150 of longitude apart There is one for each time zone There are 24 time zones Daylight Savings Time One hour ahead of Standard time spring ahead fall back International Date Lines used to separate one calendar day from another follows 180 EW When it is 12 noon on Prime Meridian it is 12 midnight along the International Date Line At this instance the calendar day exists on both sides Intemational Date Line is really squiggly Lecture 4 Tools of Geography Maps Remote Sensing and GIS Maps Projections and Scales Cartography map making science and art Map a generalized view of an area as seen from above and reduced in size Projection process of transforming spherical earth to at map representing 3D surface of the Earth on a 2D surface mathematical transformation of space Scale ratio of map unites to ground units Topographic Map somewhat 2D map With 3D features Map as a Model Map is a simplified or generalized representation or graphic model of all parts of the Earth s surface Map is designated for a specific purpose of use based upon its scale projections and theme Map is an environmental filter akin to a cognitive filter focuses attention on cognitive theme Topographic Map covers a small area With a large amount of detail Map Projections Conformality true shape Equivilance equal area conformality and equivilance are mutually exclusive mathematically impossible to preserve both on the same map Equidisance true distance True Direction a map at best can maintain two of these properties only a globe has all 4 properties
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