Class Note for MUSC 309 with Professor Schwartz at KU (7)
Class Note for MUSC 309 with Professor Schwartz at KU (7)
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Date Created: 02/06/15
MUSC 309 History of Rock Lecture 3 7 Roots of Rock I Roots of rock A Unique American art form 1 Mixture of European American and African musical in uences 2 Not a straightline in uence from any one kind of music B Helpful to think of rocks ancestors not as family tree but as primordial soup of music present in the United States in the 18th and 19th centuries 1 Or a matrix of in uences 2 Jazz blues gospel ragtime country western all emerge from matrix a Different proportions b Different emphases c Rock combination of all of these 11 African music A Most African slaves brought to US from northwestern Africa 1 Majority from Ashanti Dahomean Yoruban Congo tribes 2 Musical styles share many common traits 3 For the following Africa West Africa B In African music rhythm is of primary importance 1 African music is functional used to accompany dancing working religious rituals etc 2 Therefore strong rhythm is a necessity 3 Most African music polyrhythmic 7 many rhythmic layers a Each part has independent rhythm b Sometimes all parts coincide sometimes not 4 When they don t create cross rhythms a Rhythms working at cross purposes b Creates feeling of beat being pulled in different directions c Creates interest C Cyclic forms 7 can continue indefinitely D Complex tone colors prized in African music 1 Common to attach shells pieces of metal etc to instruments like drums and stringed instruments to create a more complex sound 2 Many Europeans thought impure sounds but actually quite sophisticated E Ex Untitled Yoruban chorus I Rhythmic layers a Stringed instrument b clappers c Drums on diff rhythmic parts d singers 2 Thick texture 3 Crossrhythms 4 Participatory 7 everyone sings whether a good singer or not F Slaves brought to United States also retained certain elements of musical culture 1 Drums prohibited in most places 2 But certain instruments banjo tambourine idea of rhythmic dominance preference for compleX tone colors survived III European in uenced parlor song A Contains elements of Irish Scottish German songs and Italian opera B Lyrical melody supported by harmonic accompaniment C Subjects generally melancholy or sentimental D Usually first performed and popularized in some secular stage entertainment and afterwards performed in the home E Designed to be performed by and listened to by persons of limited musical training and ability F Often in versechorus or AABA form 1 Two sections using the same melody but different words 2 Contrasting section of equal length 3 Return to initial melody G Henry Russell 1 Maybe most important composer of American popular song before Stephen Foster 2 English but lived in US most of adult life 3 Very popular as concert artist a Approximately 1830 ballad recitals become popular b Concertizes extensively to promote own works 4 Narrative melancholy or sentimental ballads his specialty 5 Russell one of first to recognize that lots of people liked good music but not necessarily European Classical music H EX Woodsman Spare that Tree 1 clear regular form 2 Arpeggiated accompaniment 7 notes of chords played sequentially rather than simultaneously 3 Hierarchic division of rhythm a Melody dominates b But rhythm of accompaniment creates forward motion c Work together 7 not at odds IV AngloAmerican folk music A Folk songs brought to US by immigrants from England Scotland Ireland B Survived for decades or centuries in isolated areas like Appalachia C In general 1 types a Ballads 7 lyrical songs that relate a narrative b Instrumental music for fiddle accordion or guitar c story songs 2 In versechorus or strophic form 7 verses but no chorus 3 simple melodies with narrow ranges 4 Often use pentatonic five note scale i First second third fth and sixth notes of the major scale ii Common in folk musics throughout the world 5 plain unadomed singing style 6 Often a nasal vocal quality D Ex Old Joe Clark 1 Fast dance rhythms and subdivision of beat 2 Use off1ddle and banjo 7 African in uence 3 Humorous storytelling song 4 Versechorus form V Elements of AngloAmerican folk combine with African in uences to create African American folk style A Work songs 1 Strong rhythmic foundation sung in rhythm of task at hand 2 Often call and response singing 3 Subjects the work at hand sufferings of existence 4 Ex quot0 Rosiequot B Field hollers 1 Somewhat akin to yodeling 2 Good way to make voice carry across fields long distances 3 Ex Field Hollers l and 2 C Spirituals D Ballads E Dance music 1 Played on banjo or fiddle 2 With rhythmic emphasis of West African music 3 And syncopation 4 Example quotIf It39s All Night Longquot Miles and Bob Pratcher VI Minstrelsy l Earliest definitive uniquely American popular music 2 European classical and Anglo folk music combined with hints of African American folk tradition a Use of banjo fiddle b Percussion from bones tambourine 3 Example 7 Boatmen s Dance a Can hear similarities with quotOld Joe Clarkquot b Essentially European form harmony c Folk in uence both cultures in i Pentatonic scale ii Song tells a story iii Dancelike rhythms d Great deal of rhythmic complexity e What s the tambourine doing i accents on backbeat ii Percussion creates syncopation 4 Minstrel shows continue to be in uential until turn of the century a Seem wholly pejorative and distasteful in mocking of African Americans but 7 b Now know that good number of performers were African American under the black face c And at least some composers of minstrel songs were enamored of African American folk song tried to incorporate authentic elements d Sparks two innovations in American popular music i Incorporation of dance rhythms becomes the norm ii Versechorus form established aa Verses that tell a story bb Alternate with refrain