Chapter 2 notes
Chapter 2 notes Sociology 100
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kirsten Swikert on Monday February 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Sociology 100 at Western Kentucky University taught by Dr. James Kanan in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Introductory Sociology in Sociology at Western Kentucky University.
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Date Created: 02/22/16
LAST FEW NOTES OF CHAPTER 1 Culture as a Reference Point • We tend to believe that our own culture is “normal” o The lens through which we perceive and evaluate our surroundings • Need to negotiate the opposing terms o Ethnocentrism: belief in superiority of own culture o Cultural relativism: judgment based on culture’s own perspective Cultural Diversity • Subcultures: part of the larger culture, but with important distinctions • Countercultures: subculture that is intentionally opposed to the larger culture Teaching Culture • Socialization: the process of teaching and learning societies norms, values, roles, etc. o Behave appropriately, life-long process • Changing circumstances may require socialization o Learning the norms, values, attitudes o Re-socialization occurs to the greatest extent in places called total institutions § Use of “degradation ceremonies” Agents of Socialization • The socialization or training process involves numerous individuals, groups, organizations o Family: habit formation o Peers: important of reference groups (with whom we compare?) o Education: hidden curriculum o Media: power of advertising o Religion CHAPTER 2 NOTES START HERE Society • A group of people with common interest (American society) • A system of interrelationships that connect individuals together o Lives are a collection of encounters, conversations, interactions, etc. Language • Language: is one of the most important sets of symbols with culture and society o It enables creation of culture through communication of shared meaning o Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis of Linguistic Relativity: § Language helps determine how reality is constructed § Realities vary from culture to culture in part because language varies from culture to culture Culture • The most universal part of any society • Significance of culture is most evident when you are in someone else’s o Dialect/word use o Clothing • Culture defines and describes shared human social parts o The nonmaterial parts (language, beliefs, values, norms, behaviors) of social life, and material objects (artifacts) that are passed from one generation to the next • Cultural values o Values: socially constructed ideas about what is generally considered desirable or valuable o Although there is great diversity in societies, most have dominant values- adopted by the greatest number of people Norms • Culturally defined rules of behavior o Ex: walking on the right side o Norms vary in seriousness § Folkways: informal norms or customs • Ex: elevator norms § Mores (mor-ays): formalized norms, often codified into law • Ex: athletes using performance enhancing drugs, not a law but a regulation • Ex: Christians being against adultery, not a law against it but can be cut off from parish § Taboos: very serious norms, often prohibited • Ex: cannibalism, it’s acceptable to eat animals but not humans Socialization and the Self • Becoming who we are includes an important quality of humans o We are “self-aware” • What is our self? o Self: the sum total of our conscious perceptions of how our identity is distinct from others § The image we hold of how we think other people perceive us § It’s not statistic, we continually change who we think we are throughout life • Ex: I am _____. Don’t identify with a group, use personal characteristics. • The Looking Glass Self: Charles H. Cooley o Our sense of self develops from interactions with others § We imagine how we appear to others, we interpret others’ reactions, we develop a self-concept • When looking for a partner, we use a matching system. Same level of attractiveness is used to find someone. • Self develops through three stages: George H. Meade o Preparatory (imitation) stage: we learn language and mimic others (babies/toddlers) o Play stage: we see ourselves from “significant others” eyes and being role-taking (ages 3-7) o Game stage: we see ourselves from society’s perspective (the “generalized other”) (ages 8+) § Can consider multiple roles and tasks simultaneously Social Structure and Social Interaction • Social structure: recognizable regularities or patterns in society; makes framework fairly predictable o Particularly in regard to social relationships o The framework or organization of society • Parts of social structure: Status o Status: position in society (student, employee, child, friend, etc.)
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