Class Note for PSYC 104 with Professor Holmes at KU
Class Note for PSYC 104 with Professor Holmes at KU
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Date Created: 02/06/15
ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR AND TREATMENT TOPIC I OVERVIEW OF SYMPOTOMS CUASES AND TREATMENTS WHAT IS ABNORMAL People are not abnormal behavior is DISTRESS DISABILITY AND DEVIANCE 3D s lead to a diagnosis of abnormal Behaviors considered abnormal if they distress or disable the individual or if they cause the individual to deviate 1 Distress behaviors or emotions that cause you distress can be identified as abnormal personal strain or difficulty a ie anxiety depression and hearing voices that tell you to kill yourself can be distressing and therefore can be labeled as abnormal 2 Disability behaviors or emotions that impair your ability to function personally or occupationally can be defined as abnormal a ie you re so depressed you stay in your room all the time mood defined as abnormal 3 Deviance behaviors that deviate greatly from cultural norm a ie in the US most people don t hallucinate so hallucinations are defined as abnormal i depende de el lugar hearing voices makes you a religious leader ABNORMAL AND THE DIAGNOISTIC AND STATISTICAL MANUAL OF MENTAL DISORDERS DSM THE book listing the behaviors that are officially recognized as psychiatric disorders explains different symptoms that must be present for a diagnosis to be made ifit s not listed it s not abnormal amp insurance won t pay for it it changes over time it s a scientific medical and political document PMS disorder will prolly be in the next one Cause not specified because what scientists believe changes so fast Was just 40 now hundreds some say just to get more clients for psychiatrics psychologists and social workers HISTORICAL BACKGROUD L Supernatural explanations a Possessed by angry gods evil spirits or the devil b Treatments holes in skull to get evil out and prayers exorcism a treatment in which prayers or punishments are used to drive out demons c Some were thought to be agents of the devil so they were killed d These ideas still in catholic church A Physiological explanations a Hippocrates a physician from ancient Greece who said abnormal behaviors were caused by imbalances in humors uids in the body treated by bleeding individuals changing their diet increasing the amount they exercised or reducing alcohol b Similar to the theory that abnormal behavior is prob With neurotransmitters uids in the brain In 1547 first hospital for disturbed people founded in London a Treated horribly chained confined etc some came to watch b Began to change in 1792 when Frenchman Philipp Pinel ordered that chains be removed and hospitals be renovated to be more pleasant c Dorothea Dix an English teacher worked to alert the public ofplight of mental patients founded 32 hospitals in US d Still today probs Trying to save money and people are being turned to the streets Psychological explanations a Not until 1900 s when Freud talked about abnormal behavior with stress and in unconscious I OVERVIEW OF MODERN EXPLANATIONS AND TREATMENTS 1 PSYCHODYNAMIC EXPLANATION AND PSYCHOTHERAPY The view that abnormal behavior is caused by stress and should be treated with psychotherapy Developed by Freud abnormal behaviors stem from stress in 2 ways 0 1 Try to reduce stress with defense mechanisms but they distort behavior and lead to symptoms ie if mad at someone but don t express it you displace it o 2 Ifdefense mechanisms don t work stress can lead to high levels of anxiety or depression Treatment psychotherapy help reduce stress or help with coping strategies 2 LEARNING EXPLANATION AND BEHAVIOR THERAPY Focuses solely on external factor ignoring thoughts Abnormal behavior learned and should be treated through extinction or relearning 2 processes 0 1 Classical conditioning learning inappropriate emotional responses 0 2 Operant conditioning when a behavior is followed by a reward making it more likely to be done again if abnormal behavior reinforced Behavior therapy based on principles of leaning and in which the focus is on changing behaviors rather than underlying causes 3 COGNITIVE EXPLANATION AND COGNITIVE THERAPY caused by incorrect beliefs thoughts Usually stem from a personal experience and strengthened because selectivity attend cognitive therapy used to eliminate incorrect beliefs and change behavior 1 Therapists tell person to think of their belief as a hypothesis possibility rather than fact 2 Then asked to test the hypothesis check to see if it is fact or not 3 When they realize that it is just a belief then therapist helps substitute a new belief Some problems about cause and effect are thoughts making people depressed or vice versa 4 PHYSIOLOGICAL EXPLANATION AND DRUG THERAPY Abnormal behavior due to problems with brain functioning 1 Problems with neurotransmitter can lead to levels of brain activity that are either too high or too low which can cause symptoms If neurotransmitter in some part of the brain is low that part can function well If too high can also lead to things like schizophrenia 2 Can also stem from brain damage haven t developed fully or have deteriorated Abnormal behavior caused by problems in the brain is due to 1 Genetic factors 2 Diseases that occur during prenatal development 3 Biological traumas like problems during birth Drug therapy use drugs to change levels ofneurotransmitter and thereby change behaviors Treatment not a cure DISORDERS AS SEPARATE quotPACKAGESquot Disorders made up of symptom cause and treatment Some try to explain all disorders with one theoretical viewpoint psychodynamic learning cognitive or physiological Different disorders have different causes Same disorder can have different causes depression can be due to stress or biochemical prob Different treatments must be used to overcome different causes of abnormal behavior must be linked to specific cause Physiology proves the final common pathway to symptoms Regardless of cause they ultimately in uence physiological process and it is the changes in the brain that lead to symptoms of abnormal behavior TOPIC II ANXIETY DISORDERS A group of disorders in which the major symptom is anXiety Depending on form can lead to different disorders phobias generalized anxiety panic posttraumatic stress obsessivecompulsive PHOBIAS An irrational fear of a particular stimulus or situation 3 types 1 AGORAPHOBIA A fear of being in a public place from which escape might be difficult or embarrassing if the person suddenly became anXious o Scared of panicking and embarrassing themselves don t go out of the house much 2 SOCIAL PHOBIA like eXtreme shyness a Scared ofbeing criticized by others don t want to do or say something foolish b similar to agoraphobia because both involve fear of embarrassment but different because in social phobia scrutiny by others is likely i ie if you have a social phobia you are scared to go to a meeting ifyou have to make a speech but ifyou have agro phobia you are scared to go to the meeting because you might panic 3 SPECIFIC PHOBIAS all other irrational fears CLASSICAL CONDITIONING AND EXTINCTION Like little Albert or scared by a clown when you were a babe But what fears where you weren t hurt like fear of elevators o Vicarious classical conditioning see or hear about the fear responses from others I Saw parents be scared of spiders Treatments 1 Extinguishing the response 2 Systematicdesensitization someone is taught to relax and then the relaxation is paired with the phobic stimulus thus blocking fear Pair a relaxation response with a feared stimulus so relaxation response blocks the fear response ie when someone is scared of dogs first taught to relax muscles to achieve state of relaxation then showed a nice god from a distance when still relaxed the dog will be brought closer so the relaxation response becomes associated with the dog which will block the possibility of fear then do with other dogs to generalize INCORRECT BELIEFS AND COGNITIVE THERAPY Incorrect beliefs lead to irrational fears ifyou believe all spiders are dangerous people who believe this think extinction works because you revise your incorrect belief In cognitive therapy an individual tries to change incorrect beliefs PHYSIOLOGICAL AROUSAL AND DRUGS do not lead to phobias alone but physiologicalfactors can predispose someone to develop phobias when you have one phobia you prolly have lots it increases the likelihood that someone will develop a classically conditioned fear a some are more physiologically reactive so they are more likely to experience fear b if more likely to experience fear then more likely that their fear will get paired with stimuli c more likely that a classically fear response will develop sometimes drugs can be used to reduce physiological responsiveness tranquilizers suppression not a cure but can help extinguish GENERALIZED ANXIETY DISORDER a disorder that involves pervasive anxiety that lasts for at least a month and which is not associated with any particular stimulus you don t even know why the psychodynamic learning and cognitive theorists couldn t explain when have GAD you go out in the world looking for explanation look at picture and see fear and even people who were artificially stimulated saw something bad in the picture 1 COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGSTS SAY These people are characterized by high levels of worry because they have had bad experiences so scared they will happen to them again 2PHYSIOLOGISTS SAY UNDERACTIVE INHIBITORY NEURONS amp ANTIANXIETY DRUGS Due to high levels of activity in the area of the brain that is responsible for emotional arousal It occurs because inhibitory neurons reduce activity of other neurons they inhibit neurological arousal that leads to anxiety aren t working well 0 normally they suppress arousal but if they are not then high levels of arousal turn into anxiety and so anxiety related neurons become overactive Usually the inhibitory neurons are underactive because of low levels of GABA gammaaminobutyric acid the neurotransmitter that is released by inhibitory neurons low levels associated with anxiety 1 low levels of GABA leads to low levels ofactivity of inhibitory neurons 2 low levels of activity of inhibitory neurons permits high levels ofactivity of the anxiety related neurons 3 high levels of anxiety related neurons leads to general anxiety if give people GABA their GAD goes away these drugs help GABA get into the receptor sites on the inhibitory neurons Valium and Xanax some antidepressants can also help with GAD but we don t know why RELAXATION TRAINING AND LEARNING TO COPE RELAXATION TRAINING Learning to relax muscles or meditate goal to reduce physiological arousal that underlies anxiety Not that effective because you cant do them all the time so the effects are only when you are doing them COGNITIVE THERAPY People taught that nothing horrible will happen to them doesn t eliminate but helps take the edge off PANIC DISORDER A disorder that involves a sudden onset ofintense anxiety that lasts few minutesused to be misdiagnosed as heart TRUTHS injections of sodium lactate can trigger panic attacks in ppl who suffer from panic disorder inhaling C02 carbon dioxide can trigger panic attached in people who suffer from them can occur anytime even in stage 4 sleep antidepressants such as Prozac and Zoloft can prevent panic attacks WRONG psychodynamic theorists say that they occur because threatening info from the unconscious is about to break through learning theorists say that it is because of classically conditioned anxiety responses but not triggered by any particular stimuli cognitive theorists say that it is because the person notices an increase of arousal and misinterprets it as a serious disorder like a panic attack OVERLY SENSITIVE RESPIRATORY CONTROL CENTER this problem is inherited panic attacks are due to an overly sensitive respiratory control center in the brain stem respiratory control center a cluster of neurons in the brain stem that monitors C02 levels in the blood It can send false alarms about suffocation that lead to panics because your body thinks your low in oxygen when your so relaxed and slouched down you don t take deep breaths so you have low levels of oxygen but then you take a deep breath and fix it but some overly sensitive SODIUM LACTATE It converts it to carbon dioxide ANTIDEPRESSANTS They increase levels of serotonin which is the neurotransmitter in the respiratory control center high levels reduce activity in the center and block false alarms ANTIDEPRESSANTS AND LEARNING TO COPE Only use drugs when its really bad can just learn to cope with symptoms you learn this is not a heart attack just breath and it will be over soon many people who have panic attacks have agoraphobia prolly because they are embarrassed of their panic attack so they stop going out POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER AFTER a disorder that involves the reexperiencing of a previous traumatic event ashbacks People who have it suffer from many anxiety symptoms but they are not related to what is happening to them RATHER The symptoms are holdovers from a traumatic experience earlier you can have nightmares ashbacks general numbing of emotions depression and interpersonal withdrawal CLASSICAL CONTITIONING AND EXTINCTION best understood as a classically conditioned anxiety response like a dark ally feelings and memories are particularly strong because they were made with high emotional arousal which enhances memory extinction if a women who was raped talked about the experience in a relaxed environment 0 experiencing the stimuli in the absence of stress breaks the link between the stimuli and stress and leads to extinction you can also take Valium and Paxil that inhibit anxiety response people say they have this problem too much blame their problems on quotyears ago and they will rewrite their history when have soldiers recount their stories and then follow up years later it is very different men were more likely to change their memories to include more traumatic events OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE DISORDER Obsessions persistent thoughts or images usually upsetting that someone cant get out of their mind not just worries like grades or money but they involve anxiety provoking thoughts about death or violence towards others or contamination by germs they can interfere with normal functioning compulsions other major symptom senseless behaviors that are performed repeatedly lots of people have minor compulsions but they are not disorders because don t disrupt ability used to believe that obsessions and compulsions were used to avoid or reduce anxiety which kept them form thinking about or doing something anxiety provoking with this one would think they key to was eliminate anxiety but this doesn t work ifyou take a drug that relives anxiety they are less anxious about obsessions and compulsions but they don t reduce the obsessions or compulsions explanation INNCORRECT BELIEFS amp EXPOSURE WITH RESPONSE PREVENTION Psychological explanation incorrect beliefs about the necessity of using rituals believe you must wash hands to avoid infection treatment exposure withresponse prevention person is exposed to the situation that triggers the ritual but is not allowed to perform the ritual forced to realize that nothing terrible will happen explanation LOW LEVELS OF SEROTONIN AND AN ISPRESSANTS Taking antidepressants which increased serotonin reduced symptoms in 12 the patients when given drugs that decrease their serotonin their symptoms increased explanation BRAIN DAMAGE some indirect evidence that ocd is due to low levels of brain damage people with 0CD have almost 4x as many symptoms of minor brain damage OCD can occur right after surgery or accident in which brain was damaged kids with 0CD have rapid onset after serious strep infections often diagnosed as rheumatic fever infection resultsin minor brain damage or a malfunction of brain msomau 010m MAMEWTS PHOBIAS 1 CLASSICAL CONDITIONING 1 EXTINCTION BLOCKING 2 INCORRECT BELIFES 2 CHANGING BELIEFS 3 DRUGS GENERALIZED UNDERACTIVE INHIBITORY 1 DRUGS BENZODIAZEPINES INCREASE ANXIETY DISORDER NUERONS BECASE OF LOWS GABA LEVELS OF GABA 2 ANTIDEPRESSANTS 3 MUSCLE REALAXATION amp MEDITCAITON NOT EFFECTIVE BC CANT GENERALIZE 4COPING WORKS PANIC DISORDER OVERLY SENSITIVE 1 ANTIDEPRESSANTS INCREASE SERITONIN RESPIRATORY CONTROL 2 LEARNING TO COPE WITH SYMPTOMS CENTER POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER CLASSICALLY CONTITIONING EXTINCTION OCD 1INCORRECT BELIFES 2 LOW LEVELS OF SERITONIN 3 BRAIN DAMAGE 1 EXPOSURE W RESPONSE PREVENTION 2 ANTIDEPRESSANTS INCREASE SERITONIN TOPIC III SOMATOFORM DISORDERS disorders in which individuals report symptoms ofa physical disorder but a physical cause for the symptoms cant be found SOMATIZATION HYPOCHONDRIASIS PAIN DISORDERS SOMATIZATION DISORDER a somatoform disorder in which people have numerous somatic complaints pains sexual probs loss of touch vision etc o obvi cuz it s a somatoform disorder but no physical symptom can by found 0 They reject the idea that their problems could be psychological 0 Sometimes called hypochondriacs HYPOCHONDRIASIS a somatoform disorder in which people interpret minor symptoms as symptoms ofserious disorders PAIN DISORDER a somatoform disorder in which people report pains for which physical causes can t be found CONVERSION DISORDER a somatoform disorder in which people report one or more major symptoms involving motor or sensory functions paralysis blindness but physical causes for symptoms cant be found symptoms often come and go or change with situation sometimes groups will develop similar set of conversion symptoms 0 a group of600 students were about to begin a singing performance but then so many fainted and the tests didn t show any toxic fumes so it was because those who fainted knew people who had and it was suggested BODY DYSMORPHIC DISORDER a somatoform disorder in which people have excessive concern about imagined or minor defects in physical appearance wrinkles thinning hair complexion size of nose mouth teeth etc Concern must be tormenting or devastating and must interfere with functioning SUGGESTION STRESS AND PHYSICAL SENSITIVITY 3 factors contribute to development ofsomatoform disorders 1 SUGGESTION a People tell you about it then you think you have it b Studies show that people with somatoform disorders have family histories with similar illnesses c Learn to expect it and then you misinterpret it 2 STRESS a Stress leads to increase heart rate headaches and can be misinterpreted as symptoms ofa disease 3 HIGH LEVEL OF SENSITVITY TO BODILY SENESATIONS a They misinterpret it something simple b Have low pain threshold COGNITIVE THERAPY AND TREATMENT FOR UNDERLYING DEPRESSION In cognitive therapy patients are taught to stop focusing on sensations that provide basis for symptoms if overly sensitive taught not to think of these things as quotsymptomsquot in some cases people focus on depressed and see everything as bad A CAUTION ABOUT DIAGNOSES ust cuz cant find physical symptom doesn t mean there is not a real physical disorder maybe we don t know the cause yet DISSOCIATIVE DISORDERS Disorders in which people dissociate themselves from periods of time in their life or aspects of their personality that are threatening major symptom is that people are not aware of important aspects of their personalities or surroundings when you act quotbadquot you separate yourself from that to reduce stress DISSOCIATE AMNESIA AND DISSOCIATIVE FUGUE DISSOCIATIVE AMNESIA A dissociate disorder in which people lose their memory for periods of time in which stressful events occurred NO EVIDNENCE DOESN T EXIST after battle solder forgets like repression used to protect from stress dissociative amnesia loss ofmemory due to psychological blocking organic amnesia is due to physiological factor like concussions DISSOCIATIVE FUGUE Memory for your entire preceding life is gone they move to a new place and assume a new identity NO EVIDENCE DOESN T EXIST likelihood of faking is high DISSOCIATIVE IDENTITY DISORDER used to b called MULTIPLE PERSONALITY a disorder in which people develop 2 or more separate personalities some ofwhich are not aware of others different than schizophrenia because in that you have 1 personality but left reality hallucinations and delusions term personality split is slang no technical meaning ranges from 2 60 personalities with the average of 15 90 of people with this are women usually sharp contrast between at least 2 of the personalities 0 Eva white threatened by Eva black so she was slip off as an quotalterquot alternative personality 0 Other personalities can also develop if something terrible happened to someone as a child like being sexually assaulted and then someone splits off that part of themselves to avoid stress of remembering EVIDENCE OF DID It is officially accepted in DSM but people changing Advocates say some suffer from physical disorders such as blindness allergies diabetes in one personality and not the other NO EVIDENCE FOR THIS measured patterns of electrical activity in brain EEG and they said it was like 4 different brains but this was ROLE PLAYING In the case study of Sybil an author not a therapist wrote the book One of the physicians said she was just suggestible Therapist related memories they were not discovered they always do this just wrote it because it would sell this guy from cali made up a personality because it was suggested to him and he didn t want to go to jail Then someone said he should have 3 so he IUST GOT ONE MORE IF YOU BELIVE IT THEN YOU HAVE IT BEST EXPLAINED AS A PLACEBO EFFECT DEPERSONALIZATION DISORDER A dissociative disorder in which people report feelings of being detached from their body or mind Feel as ifbody size has changed view body from above etc Not very serious because you know sensations not real Occur in 30 of people TOPIC V MOOD DISORDERS Disorders that involve extremes of mood that range from depression to mania DEPRESSIVE DISORDER A mood disorder that involves deep depression feelings ofworthlessness loss ofinterest in activities change in appetite problems with sleep loss of energy and problems with concentration 15 ofpop will suffer from it in addition 3 will develop less serious form called dysthymic disorder struggle if life without enjoyment but don t serious enough to treat twice as common in women some more likely because predisposed to depression low levels of serotonin STRESS amp PSYCHOTHERAPY Lots of evidence linking stress and depression 30 ofpeople had financial loss became depressed vs 2 the intense brain activity associated with stress depletes the levels of serotonin in the hypo as a consequence the hypo becomes underactive and person becomes depressed social support helps reduce depression quality not quantity aerobic exercise can help protect from stressrelated depression a people who are in better shape have smaller physiological responses to stressors smaller increases of heart rate and blood pressure they respond with less stress stress levels less likely to cause depression b during exercise your body produces more serotonin which helps protect from low levels that lead to depression in psychotherapy learn how to avoid and cope with stress therapist provides social support INCORRECT BELIEFS amp COGNITIVE THERAPY Depression brought on by incorrect negative beliefs Selectively attend it builds on itself Despite years of research no evidence that negative beliefs per se cause depression Maybe its that negative beliefs in combination with stress cause depression they make stress worse Cognitive therapy can help change beliefs it works PHYSIOLOGICAL CAUSES 1 PROBLEMS WITH NEUROTRASMITTERS Low levels of serotonin and norepinephrine they play an impt Role in hypo mood AND sex appetite and sleep why when depressed these suffer 0 When low depression when high mania in dairy amp turkeys there is a substance called tryptophan after eating it is converted to serotonin 2 BRAIN DAMAGE Many depressed after a stroke 0 More likely to become depressed if stoke is in the left prefrontal cortex than the right impt because it is where you think and decide what to do amp feel I Helps explain why slow thinking and problem solving are associated with depression high rate of depression in older people bc this part of their cortex has deteriorated 3 GENETICS STRONG Cooccurrence ofdepression in identical twins is 70 and nonidentical is 30 Similar levels of depression to your bio family members PHYSIOLOGICAL TREAMENTS ANTIDEPRESSANTS At the synapses the presynaptic neuron releases a neurotransmitter that ows across the gap which enters the receptor site of the postsynaptic neuron causing it to re But some may not make their way to the postsynaptic and they get stuck in the gap To keep the gap clean the presynaptic neuron reahsorhs it this process is called reuptake SSRI Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitros Antidepressants work by blocking the reuptake of serotonin They do this by clogging the channels through which serotonin would be reabsorbed so stays in gap and more likely to be stimulate the postsynaptic neuron o Prozac Zoloft PaXil Celexa Luvox Atypical Antidepressants 0 New antidepressants work by stimulating production ofneurotransmitter dopamine in the pleasure center which overwhelms depression Depressed people more likely to smoke bc nicotine stimulates dopamine Wellbutrin Zyban same thing this just helps ppl stop smoking ANTIDEPRESSANTS ARE EFFECTIVE BUT 5 QUALIFICATIONS 1 May take up to 4 weeks to have an affect 2 It can have unpleasant side effects dry mouth women have problems with achieving orgasm feel like you have a motor in your chest and cant sit still 3 Drugs are a treatment not a cure cant solve genetic probs with neurotransmitters if stop can relapse some peoples system adjust and then they stop producing correct amount 4 Diff drugs effective for diffpeople 5 combining drugs and psychological treatment most effective STIMULANTS AND HERBAL MEDICINE Stimulants drugs such as amphetamines that can increase production ofneurotransmitters and thereby reduce depression stimulants like cocaine provide a quick fiX but when you stop taking it depression becomes worse because the body becomes dependant Saint Iohn s wort an herbal medicine that may be effective for treating depression early experiments with kinda depressed folks showed that it was as effective but more recent studies with severely depressed ppl show that it is just like a placebo ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY ECT PHYSIOLOGICAL TREATMENT ECTThe use of electric shocks to the brain which cause convulsions and reduce depression aka shock therapy First the patient is given a sedative so they are unconscious during ECT Second muscle relaxer so patients don t hurt themselvesUsually just move toes Then electrodes are placed on the side of the head then shock between 20150 volts is passed though head for about a second You breathe a lot and get to much C02 so they give you oxygen 1 Does it work a Yes used every other day see results after 3 4 treatments and if not that soon then stop doing it b Not a cure depression may reoccur use antidepressants to maintain mood 2 Side effects a The amount of damage that is done is so small b May show better intellectual functioning bc eliminates depression c Can cause retrograde amnesia loss ofmemory for past events i Usually just for recent events but more shocks the farther back 3 Why a Idk 4 How was it discovered a some psychiatric patients who also suffered from epilepsy improved psychiatric symptoms after a seizer so people tried to artificially create seizers with drugs first and then shocks TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION A physiological treatment in which electromagnets are used to stimulate neurons in the left frontal lobes when electromagnetic are placed on the scalp over the left frontal lobes and then magnets are used to stimulate neurons beneath them depression reduced don t know why it works but its quick easy to administer just wear a cap remain conscious no convulsions or side effects effects last less than 5 weeks LIGHT THERAPY Depression can be brought on my decreasing amounts oflight Depression with seasonal pattern Depression that occurs in the winter because of reduced light used to be called seasonal affective disorder SAD IDK WHY Light therapy the use of bright light to treat depression with seasonal patternexpose people to high levels of bright light not that common GENDER amp DEPRESSION General agreement about 1 Depression is diagnosed more in women than men twice as much 2 Increased rate in women appears after puberty 3 More likely to occur repeatedly cyclical in women than men 3 Explanations 1Women are exposed to more and high levels of stressors more stress bc poverty kids responsibilities sexual abuse but no evidence found even when level of stress same for women and men women were more stressed 2 women have coping strategies that predispose them to depression we used passive ways like worrying and asking others for help 3 Physiological differences between sexes diff in problem solving rate of depression in women higher during adolescence hormones firm links between changes in mood and hormones during period haven t been found more passive approaches used by women due to low levels of testosterone Lots ofwomen become depressed right after they give birth postpartum depression best predictor is previous depressions depression PSYCHOLOGICAL OR PHYSIOLOGICAL some caused by psychological and some by physiological not an effective way to tell what causes it in someone best indicator family depression ask question has been a impt Neg change in my life this past week If no then physiological BIPOLAR DISORDER Used to be called manic depressive disorder a mood disorder in which people go through cycles of mania can have delusions feel on top of the worldand depression wide individuals differences in speed that you change some its days some it can be years UNSTABLE NUEROLOGICAL ACTIVITY AND PROBS WITH BRAIN STUCTURES Changes in mood are due to changes in levels ofneurotransmitters or changes in sensitivity of postsynaptic neurons Structural probs can also contribute to bipolar disorder amygdala larger in people with bipolar disorder LITHIUM AND ANTICONVULSANTS DRUGS challenge to get them to use them constituently In 195 0 s it was discovered that lithium helps level out mood for 65 of people with bipolar not sure why Anticonvulsants used to treat epilepsy are effective Tegretol Klonopin Depakote prob because they help control erratic firing in the brain It is often necessary for people to take antidepressants people often stop taking the medicine because they don t think they need it anymore but they are way more likely to have a relapse Also stop taking it because they miss the highs drugs are the main way to help but also psychological help with learning how to manage stress because stress trigger a manic episode patients and families taught how to monitor symptoms TOPIC VI SUICIDE Among the 10 leading deaths in the US 2 101 major death among young males prolly don t take into account when physicians don t want to list it and covert suicides suicides that are disguised as accidents suicide gestures behaviors that appear to be suicidal but they are not designed to kill the person cutting wrists overdose of drugs usually indirect pleas for help because people don t know how to ask for help or they have been ignored they can also be attempts to manipulate others like ifyou just breakup must not be ignored women are more than 3 times as likely to attempt suicide but men are more likely to succeed because they use more Violent techniques EXPLANATIONS Often used to release an overwhelming burden of stress goes up a lot during economic hardships Depression more than 36 times as likely as nondepressed people but not in deepest stage because they are out of energy feeling of hopelessness that accompanies depression is most important SOCIAL MODELING IMITATION Rate goes up over 7 after people hear about suicide provide guidance ofhow and where best predictors of suicide among adolescence are 1 history of attempts 2 Depression 3 Recent attempt by friend LOW LEVELS OF SEROTONIN AND CHOLESTEROL Low levels of serotonin lead to impulsivity and aggression Suicide in identical twins is 15 higher than in nonidentical twins Low level of cholesterol leads to low level of serotonin and that leads to impulsivity and suicide TOPIC I SCHITZOPHREINIC DISORDERS A disorder involving symptoms such as hallucination delusions and disruptions of thought processes used to think that we couldn t solve it difficult because the symptoms are beyond our experiences unlike anxiety and depression YET 15 OF POP some with schizophrenia are able to function well in society large individual differences in symptoms A Set of Disorders With Different Causes SYMPTOMS HALLUCINATIONS Sensory experiences that do not have a basis in reality hearing seeing smelling thing that are not there CAN NOT separate from reality DELUSIONS Bizarre beliefs that are held despite overwhelming evidence to the contrary believing you are Jesus Believe your thoughts are being projected across your forehead or police are after her Rationally she knows this is not true but the beliefs are unshakable COGNITIVE FLOODING The inability to screen out irrelevant stimuli and therefore are constantly ooded with over stimulation as if the filter is broken when we are in class we are listing to holmes but even if door opens someone sneezes etc we are still listening to him like a room with 5 radios all of FULL BLAST DISTURBED THOUGHT PROCESS Problems with thought processes that usually result from distraction When you have a thought can t always follow it to completion and goes on to a new thought seems like its problems with speech but its problems with thought process DEPRESSED OR INAPPROPRIATE MOOD about 60 ofpeople who suffer from schizophrenia are also seriously depressed schizoaffective disorder and some have mania many also have inappropriate emotional responsesdepression or mania as a part of schizophrenia or laughing or crying without reason usually responding to hallucinations or delusions DECLINE IN INTELLECTUAL FUNCTIONING Makes sense because of all the symptoms FLAT MOOD AND APTAHY DISORGANIZED AND CATATONIC BEHAVIOR behavior that is disorganized is a re ection of underlying problems catatonic lack of movement put them in any position and they would stay there for hours SUBTYPES 0F SCHIZOPHRENIA 2 the subtypes don t lead to an understanding of what caused the symptoms or how they should be treated TRADITIONAL TYPES OF SCHIZOPHRENIA Used to separate into 5 subtypes but prob because 1 many don t fit into 1 subtype TYPE SYMPTOMS COMMENT Disorganized 1 Disorganized speech 2 Inappropriate mood or The classic form schizophrenia no current symptoms but odd beliefs or unusually perceptual experiences depressed Catatonic 1 person rarely moves Very rare maybe because 2 excessive but new help stops it before it purposeless activity gets this bad Paranoid Iust delusions of Very different from other persecution forms Residual Occurs in people who had a holdover from belief that schizophrenia is forever Undifferentiated Symptoms don t fit any other subtype Re ects that people don t fit nicely into subtypes POSITIVE SYMPTOMS POSITIVE SYMPTOMS VS NEGATIVE SYMPTOMS new way to organize symptoms positive emotions are additions to normal behaviors Usually people with these symptoms had a normal adjustment life until later in adolescence or early adulthood but then they developed quick 0 For them the prognosis is good and usually can be controlled with drugs and sometimes will clear up spontaneously high levels of brain activity due to high levels of dopamine activity HaLLUCINATIONS Delusions Thought disorders Bizarre behaviors 0 thing they have but shouldn t vs things they don t have but should NEGATIVE SYMPTOMS negative symptoms re ect the absence of normal behaviors normal individuals have the ability to experience positive emotions due to low levels ofbrain activity and structural problems in the brain people with these symptoms were never really well adjusted 0 slow and progressive development over time and then finally became schizophrenic 0 their prognosis is poor and drugs don t really help 0 at mood o poverty of speech 0 apathy o inability to experience positive feelings INTERMEDIATE CAUSES OF SCHIZOPHRENIA 2 levels of causes first primary causes that get the process started And second are intermediate causes that then lead to symptoms HIGH LEVELS OF DOPAMINE ampHIGH LEVELS OF NEUROLOGICAL ACTIVITY Excessively high level of neurological activity in the brainpositive symptoms High levels in the frontal lobes jam and overload the system distraction confusion in thought High levels of activity in the temporal lobes can trigger hallucinations This happens because memories for sights and sounds are stored here so when over stimulated memories activated as hallucinations activity in the brain is generated at the base of the brain and tracts carry info to cortex I when you have positive symptoms of schizophrenia it is too much info too fast and then it all gets confused in the cortex the neurotransmitter in those tracts is dopamine STRUCTUAL PROBLEMS IN THE BRAIN AND LOW NEUROLOGICAL ACITIVITY Excessively low level of neurological activity in the brain negative symptoms Low levels retard functioning in the frontal lobes This is due to structural problems in the brainO deteriorated or not developed fully Cortex amp Frontal lobes of adolescence decreased 11 over 4 year period In adults with negative symtoms TOFIC ll PSYCHODYNAMIC EXPLANATION Freud poor Iewish from Czechoslovakia he was the chosen child Did medicine just hated it just did it because it was exible Studied hysteria with Brewer discovered Anna 0 when she talked about problems catharsis she felt better THE UNCONSCIOUS AND THE PROCESS OF REPRESSION THE STAGES OF PSYCHOSEXUAL DEVELOPMENT 1 ORAL STAGE Birth to 18 months a First thing an infant does when you give them a block is put it in their mouth they learn about the world that way b Mouth source of great pleasure it s a erogenous zone a zone where internal tissue meets external tissue lots ofnerve endings very sensitive infants get pleasure from sucking thumbs c Chew pencil when get anxious regressing back to oral stage 2 ANAL STAGE 18 months to three years a Another erogenous zone b Freud said it is the first time you have control over anything c But when you go though toilet training power taken away again i You can comply and go when she tells you to or you can be stubborn and go later 1 the person who compiles will help others in the future others will be selfish d after effects of an anal fixation during this stage can result in an obsession with cleanliness perfection and control anal retentive 3 PHALLIC STAGE ages three to six a Little boy sees little nugi girl he is freaked out because she doesn t have a penis and now has castration anxiety b Little boy also likes his mom but he has to compete with his dad so he identifies with dad so he can have mom vicariously Also fears father will castrate him c Little girls have penis envy d Comes from play Oedipus this boy is left amp other people find him finds out later that he killed his dad ends up marring his mom Freud said this occurs across cultures we are in love with cross sex parents and are afraid ofwhat same sex parents will do to us 4 LATENCY STAGE age six to puberty a Nothing happens b It s during this stage that sexual urges remain repressed 5 GENITAL STAGE pub erty on a Nothing new keep struggling from oral anal and phallic stages THE ROLE OF FIXATION AND REGRESSION FIXATION Some people get stuck in a early stage fixated there 0 ie stuck in anal stage never go through the oedipal period and never internalized their beliefs cultural beliefs and it is through the internalizing process that we get conscious and then you will get antipersonality disorder REGRESSION 0 When at the genital age but faced with overwhelming stress 0 Regress back to early stage where you felt more comfortable like chewing on a pencil oral gratification ID SUPEREGO EGO Different approach to personality 3 parts to us ID Biological power plant basic needs and drives seX water food Wants gratification NOW Like infants 0 Shareholders who want profits SUPEREGO Opposite of ID your conscious right amp wrong Environmentalists you cant just ruin the environment to make EGO sits between ID and SUPEREGO CEO ok will hurt the enviro a only a little bit but we will still make money PSYCHOTHERAPY VS PSYCHOANALYSIS psychotherapy o What Tamara and I do psychoanalysis o lay down and the therapists sits behind you and the patient just talks free association about whatever you want for many days a week for many years 0 idea that you will go back to the point in your childhood when problem arose rarely practiced in the midwest NEOFREUDIAN EXPLANATIONS These neoFreudians believe it all besides the sexual part they provide alternative eXplanations ADLER born weak small inferior we develop feelings of inferiority which we are always trying to overcome IUNGcollective unconscious he believed that in our unconscious we have ALLLL of our memories why are we afraid of snakes and spiders because when we were little insects snakes and spiders could hurt us HORNEY interpersonal con ict
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