Prehistoric Archaeology People of the New World Notes
Prehistoric Archaeology People of the New World Notes 22469
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Adrienne Nave on Monday February 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 22469 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Dr. Hollenback in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Prehistoric Archaeology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 02/22/16
People of the New World - Anatomically modern human migration/radiation - Possible routes o Land Bridge Hypothesis o Coastal Entry Model o Solutrean Hypothesis When? - Pre Clovis(Early): Before 15-20,000 years ago - Clovis First (later): After ca. 15,000 years ago Different Types of Ice Sheet/Pleistocene Ice Sheet - Laurentide Ice Sheet (thick) o This Ice sheet was the main ice sheet on the North American continent. The heart of it occurred around the area of the Great Lakes which did not exist at the time - Cordilleran Ice Sheet o This Ice Sheet was located in the Pacific North West and was not as thick as the Laurentide Ice Sheet. - Two Sites to remember o Folsom o Clovis 12,700-15,000 years ago: - Younger Dryas: brief but pronounced drop in temperatures - Outflow from Lake Agassiz into the North Atlantic o This outflow from Lake Agassiz, located on the now US/Canada border, created the Mississippi River o The outflow also caused cold water to be released into the oceans which altered the “Global Conveyor Belt” of Ocean Currents that controls the climate Present Landscape - Effects o Around the time that humans started arriving to the North American Continent, Mega-fauna started going extinct. It is unclear whether or not the arrival of humans was the cause of this extinction or if there was another cause. Land Bridge Hypothesis - What evidence is nessecsary 1. Human skeleton or artifacts that are clearly the work of man 2. In situ with undisturbed geologic deposits 3. Association with fossils and known age or good isotopic dating - Ice Free Corridor o Retreat of Laurentide and Cordilleran ice sheets o De-glaciation must occur to create path through the two ice sheets o Clovis points were found along the projected path they would have taken o The environment in between these two ice sheets would have been a glacial dessert that would have been wet, but without many plants. o There would have been a rapid spread of people from the Ice Free corridor Coastal Entry Model - Problems with this model: 1. Sites would have been located along the coast and are now submerged underneath the Pacific Ocean 2. No coastal sites earlier than 11,000BP are widely accepted in North America - The Kelp Highway Hypothesis o This hypothesis states that the coastal moving people would have depended on kelp as one of their food sources - Santa Rosa island o Site for these coastal traveling people Soulutrean Hypothesis - Would have to have found tools on both sides of the Atlantic - There is no DNA evidence to date that supports this model - The model is not very likely to have occurred Clovis Culture 13500-12900BP - Rapid spread in people - These different people had similar technology and social organization - Clovis people are considered to be big game hunters - Production of Large bi-faces o Heavy duty tools o Blanks for other tools - Use of quality stone sources o Often focused on a singe preferred source - Anzick Site, Montana 18,000 years ago o A buried infant found - 14 mega-fauna kill sites found across continent o dating to 13,000 cal BP - Monte Verde, Chile o Predates Clovis model by 1,000 years so this could be evidence of the Coastal Sea Model o Site was uncovered in a bog environment to the wood from the homes of this site was preserved
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