PSYC 10213, Chapter 6 Notes
PSYC 10213, Chapter 6 Notes PSYC 10213
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maycie Tidwell on Monday February 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 10213 at Texas Christian University taught by Wehlburg in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Science at Texas Christian University.
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Date Created: 02/22/16
PSYC Chapter 6 notes: Sensation and Perception Sensation: what we get in through our senses. Detection of physical energy of the world. Our body converts these things into a neural impulse. Perception: the understanding that we make out of it. Taking that neural impulse and making sense of it. Bottom Up Processing: turning parts into a whole. Ex: 3 part to the letter “A.” (not as efficient as top down) Top-Down Processing: taking the context of something into consideration to make sense of it. Psychophysics: we perceive: light as brightness. Sound as volume, pressure as weight and sugar as sweet. We all have a threshold. The minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus half the time. *Half the time you get it right, and half the time you get it wrong. Subliminal Threshold: stimuli are below our absolute threshold for conscious awareness. Sensory Adaptation: when you get used to things. Ex: when we put a band aid on and forget that it is there. Transduction: changing the light wave into brightness, etc. We need our ears to perceive sounds, and our eyes to perceive light/brightness. We perceive light in 2 ways: Wavelength (hue/color) Intensity (brightness) *Different wavelengths result in different colors. Intensity: Amount of energy in a wave, determined by amplitude. (ex: different shades of blue have different intensities.) Parts of the Eye: 1. Cornea: Transparent tissue where light enters the eye. 2. Iris: Muscle that expands and contracts to change the size of the opening (pupil) for light. 3. Lens: Focuses the light rays on the retina. 4. Retina: Contains sensory receptors that process visual information and sends it to the brain. Lens: Transparent structure behind the pupil that changes shape to focus images on the retina. (allows us to focus on distant or close up images). Accommodation: The process by which the eye’s lens changes shape to help focus near or far objects on the retina. Retina: The light-sensitive inner surface of the eye, containing receptor rods and cones in addition to layers of other neurons (bipolar, ganglion cells) that process visual information. We have rods and cones. Rods: sees B&W Cones: sees color Optic nerve: Carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain. Blind Spot: Point where the optic nerve leaves the eye because there are no receptor cells located there. Fovea: Central point in the retina around which the eye’s cones cluster. Optic nerves connect to the thalamus in the middle of the brain, and the thalamus connects to the visual cortex (how we perceive visual info.) Parallel Processing: Processing of several aspects of the stimulus simultaneously. Trichromatic theory: eye must contain three receptors that are sensitive to red, blue and green colors. Hearing: Sound waves are compressing and expanding air molecules. Sound characteristics: Frequency: pitch Intensity: loudness **When you hear something too loud and it hurts your ear, your tympanic membrane rips a little, and heals with scar tissue, and can create hearing loss. (or when you put a Q-tip too far in your ear) Outer Ear: Collects and sends sounds to the eardrum. Middle Ear: Chamber between eardrum and cochlea containing three tiny bones (hammer, anvil, stirrup) that concentrate the vibrations of the eardrum on the cochlea’s oval window. Inner Ear: Innermost part of the ear, containing the cochlea, semicircular canals, and vestibular sacs. Cochlea: Coiled, bony, fluid-filled tube in the inner ear that transforms sound vibrations to auditory signals. Intensity: loudness. Bigger amp: louder. Smaller amp: quieter. Frequency/pitch is determined by wavelength. Short WL: high pitch Long WL: low pitch Localization of Sounds: Because we have two ears, sounds that reach one ear faster than the other ear cause us to localize the sound. 1. Intensity differences 2. Time differences Touch: A mix of 4 distinct senses 1. Pressure 2. Warmth 3. Cold 4. Pain *feeling something soft is a combo of some of these senses. *pressure is the only sense with identifiable receptors. --Pain can be controlled using therapies such as drugs, surgery, acupuncture, hypnosis, and thought distraction. Taste: 1. Sweet 2. Sour 3. Salty 4. Bitter 5. Unami: fresh roast chicken Sensory Interaction: when one sense affects another. Ex: blue ketchup and green colored mashed potatoes taste bad. Smell: a chemical sense. Odorants enter the nasal cavity to stimulate 5 million receptors to sense smell. Unlike taste, there are many different forms of smell. Ex: when we have a cold we can’t taste things as well because we cant smell. *Smell is very closely related to memories. Gestalt Approach to Perception: when we see things we group them to look at things as whole instead of as individual parts. When we group things, we organize them into meaningful forms using grouping rules. These rules are based on proximity, similarity, continuity and connectedness. Depth perception: enables us to judge distances. Humans don’t develop this until right before we start to crawl. Newborn animals do have it. Retinal disparity: Images from the two eyes differ. Relative Size: If two objects are similar in size, we perceive the one that casts a smaller retinal image to be farther away. Interposition: Objects that occlude (block) other objects tend to be perceived as closer. Relative Height: We perceive objects that are higher in our field of vision to be farther away than those that are lower. Relative motion: Objects closer to a fixation point move faster and in opposing direction to those objects that are farther away from a fixation point, moving slower and in the same direction. Linear Perspective: Parallel lines, such as railroad tracks, appear to converge in the distance. The more the lines converge, the greater their perceived distance. Light and Shadow: Nearby objects reflect more light into our eyes than more distant objects. Perceptual constancy: When things get closer to us we know they are still the same size. Color Constancy: we know things are the same color even when the changing illumination filters the light reflected on the object. Size-Distance Relationship: when two objects appear to differ in size based on location when they really are the same size. Sensory Deprivation & Restored Vision: After cataract surgery, you cant see the difference between a circle and a triangle. Perceptual Adaptation: Your visual ability to adjust to an artificially displaced visual field. Ex: prism glasses make you see upside down but your eyes eventually adjust to see everything right side up. Perceptual Set: What we expect to see is often what we do see. Extrasensory Perception (ESP): Perception without sensory. (not believed by many scientists) -Telepathy -Clairvoyance -Precognition
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