Note for HWC 204 with Professor Botkin at KU
Note for HWC 204 with Professor Botkin at KU
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Date Created: 02/06/15
The Gospel of Mark Twosource Hypothesis Parablestalking in parables to teach lessons they tell an underlying moral or story Q source a hypothetical textual source for the gospel of Matthew and gospel of Luke Q is de ned as the common material found in Matthew and Luke but not in Mark This ancient text supposedly contained the quotations of Jesus Synoptic Gospels Gospels of Mark Matthew Luke All three stories share the same stories same sequences and sometimes the same wording Because of this there must be some literary independence accounted for Council of NicaeaNicene Creed The council of Nicaea was the first effort to attain consensus in the church through an assembly representing all of Christendom They settled the issue of the relationship with Jesus and God the father and they constructed the first part of the Nicene Creed The Nicene Creed is to act as a yardstick of correct belief It was drawn up at times of con ict about doctrine 325 it explicitly affirms the divinity of Jesus applying to him the term God The version speaks of the Holy Spirit as worshipped and glorified with the father and the son Gnosticism a prominent heretical movement of the 2quotd century Christian church partly of preChristian origin Gnostic doctrine taught that the world was created and ruled by a lesser divinity the demiurge and that Christ was an emissary of the remote supreme Matthew Luke Helafionships between the Synoptic Gospels Unluue in Mark and Mark and Mallhew 35 23 Umque m Unlque to Luke 39 39 Mallhew divine being esoteric knowledge of whom enabled the redemption of the human spirit Aleg0rical interpretation of scripture Eschatology the study of or teachings about the end times and or the future world beyond the end of normal time The doctrine of the Trinity The father the son and the Holy Spirit One God three persons Gentiles target audience Paul Agape Love feasts each participant brings food eaten in the common room held on Sundays last supper shared wine and bread with the faithful Saul 0f Tarsus Paul s Jewish name when he lived in Cilicia Changed his name when he was a Roman citizen Herod King of Jews in New Testament heard that there was a new ruler the birth of Jesus said that he wanted to meet him so he sent people to fetch him Maji had a dream that it was a trick and that Herod was going to kill baby Jesus Joseph s family moved to Egypt Herod got pissed and killed every son that was under the age of 2 Epistles Romans explained that salvation is offered through the gospel of Jesus Christ First Corinthians written to correct the views of the Corinthian church urging uniformity of belief and clarifying Christian doctrine Second Corinthians he states the importance of forgiving others and God s new agreement that comes from the Spirit of the living God 2 Cor 33 and the importance of being a person of Christ and giving generously to God s people in Jerusalem and ends with his own experience of how God changed his life His advice to the people of Corinth uniformity of belief and expounding Christian doctrine His views on marriage Paul states that it is better for Christians to remain unmarried but that it is better to marry than sin Women in general they must remain silent 1 Cor 11216 143435 and the role of prophecy and speaking tongues in churches Augustine Manichean dualism and its effects on Augustine s thought M anichaeism taught an elaborate cosmology describing the struggle between a good spiritual world of light and an evil material world of darkness He is concerned with the effect of Manichaeism on his own relationship with God Manichaeism offered Augustine a way to accommodate his con icts he could pursue his career and retain his partner while purging his sins through his service to the pure Elect 411 and he could blame those sins on his lower alien nature which like the material world had been made by the power of evil but which his true self would eventually shed 51018 Manichaeism also responded to his needfor the name ofChrist and his initial distaste for the Christian scriptures 3486 10 He could regard the Bible as a crude and contaminated attempt at the truth whereas the M anichaean scriptures o ered both the name of Christ and what seemed to be a profound understanding of the universe and of human life 3610 Neoplatonic ideas in his philosophy a balance between soul and body Platonists were the best of philosophers since they concentrated not merely on the causes of things and the method of acquiring knowledge but also on the cause of the organized universe as such His image of God as it develops throughout his conversion process The problem of evil How is it possible to explain the profusion and variety of natural and moral evil in a Godcreated world C 138 The atheistic Argument 1 God exists and is omnipotent omniscient and omnibenevolent 2 If God were omnipotent he could prevent all evil 3 If God were omniscient he would know about all evil 4 If God were omnibenevolent he would desire to eliminate all evil 5 Therefore Evil does not exist from 14 6 Nevertheless evil does exist 7 Therefore either 1 God does not exist or 2 God exists but is either not omnipotent not omniscient or not omnibenevolent Augustine first answers with a Manichean response evil is a substance He later rejects this solution and the Manichean religion His NeoplatonicChristian response the privation theory of evil hierarchical order of being Godgt Angels gt Man gtBeasts goodness order harmony evil is the opposite Wickedness is not a substance but a perversion of the will when it turns aside from you Oh God who are the supreme substance and veers towards things of the lowest order when humans freely choose to be less than god intended they sin are wicked His view on faith vs reason in religion he felt that intellectual inquiry into the faith was to be understood as faith seeking understanding It is an act of the intellect determined not by the reason but by the will Faith involves commitment Pagan science studies what is eternal and unchanging it can be used to clarify and illuminate the Christian faith Logic history and the natural sciences are extremely helpful in matters of interpreting ambiguous or unknown symbols in the scriptures Platonists concentrated on the method of acquiring knowledge and also the organization of the universe Faith lies within not only the individual but also the church He believes that one cannot genuinely understand God until one loves him Original sin Augustine taught that Original Sin was of Adam and Eve was either an act of foolishness followed by pride and disobedience to God or Vice versa pride came first Original sin was transmitted by concupiscence which he regarded as the passion of both soul and body The Catholic Church considers Augustine s teaching to be consistent with free will He often said that any could be saved if they wish While God knows who will be saved and who will not with no possibility that one destined to be lost will be saved this knowledge represents God39s perfect knowledge of how humans will freely choose their destinies Koran The ve pillars of Koran 1 Faith or belief in the oneness of God and the finality of the prophet hood of Muhammad a Must believe in god and that Muhammad is his prophet 2 Establishment of the daily prayers a Must pray every day 3 Concern for the alms giving to the needy a Help out the needy 4 Selfpurification through fasting a must fast 5 The pilgrimage to Mecca for those who are able a Travel to Mecca once in your lifetime preferably during Ramadan Muhammad he was the founder of the religion of Islam regarded by Muslims as a messenger and prophet of GodAllah 610 he was prayingfasting he received a revelation from Gabriel the angel Qur an was recorded after all these revelations Allah Islamic God Jihad is a religious duty of Muslims Muslims use the word in a religious context to refer to three types of struggles an internal struggle to maintain faith the struggle to improve the Muslim society or the struggle in a holy war Attitudes towards Christian and Jewish beliefs The Qur an speaks well of the relationship it has with former books and attributes their similarities to their unique origin and saying all of them have been revealed by the one God The Qur an recounts stories of many of the people and events recounted in Jewish and Christian sacred books and devotional literature although it differs in many details It still names a lot of people as prophets including Adam through Jesus Muslims believe the common elements or resemblances between the Bible and other Jewish texts were authentic divine revelations give to prophets Muslims also believe that those texts were neglected corrupted or altered in time by the Jews and Christians and have been replaced by Gods final and perfect revelation which is the Qur an The signi cance of the day of judgement eternal punishment and reward in Islam the significance of the day of judgement is to determine whether one goes to paradise of the hellfire One is judged by how many good deeds they have done If you have many you are sent to paradise but if you have bad deeds you are sent to the hellfire Ka bah is a cubeshaped building in Mecca It is the most sacred site in Islam Predates Islam built by Ibrahim The building has a mosque built around it All Muslims in the world face the Kaaba during prayers no matter where they are The last pillar requires every Muslim to perform the Hajj pilgrimage at least once in their lifetime Mecca It is the holiest meeting site in Islam Muhammad was born there and then travelled there during Hajj Muslims pray in the direction of Mecca every day Aguinas The ve proofs of God 1 Argument of motion some things are in motion anything moved is moved by another and there can t be an in nite series of movers So there must be a first mover This is God 2 Argument of Ef cient Causes Some things are caused anything caused is caused by another and there can t be an in nite series of causes So there must be a rst cause This is God 3 Necessary Being Every contingent being at some time fails to exist So if everything were contingent then at some time there would have been nothingi and so there would be nothing nowiwhich is clearly false So not everything is contingent So there is a necessary being This is God 4 Greatest Being some things are greater than other Whatever is great to any degree gets its greatness from that which is the greatest So there is a greatest being which is the source of all greatness This is God 5 Intelligent Designer many things in the world that lack intelligence act for an end Whatever acts for an end must be directed by an intelligent being So the world must have an intelligent designer This is God Cosmological argument is an argument for the new existence of a First Cause to the universe and by extension is often used as an argument for the existence of an unconditioned or supreme being usually then identi ed as God Aquinas conception of First Cause was the idea that the Universe must have been caused by something that was itself uncaused which he asserted was God The Great Chain of Being a conception of the metaphysical order of the universe in which all beings from the most basic up to the very highest and most perfect being are hierarchically linked to form on interconnected whole Plantsgtanimalsgthumansgtangelsgtgod His four types of law 1 Eternal law the ideal type or order of the universe preexisting in the mind of God God governs the universe through physical laws moral laws and revealed religious laws 2 Natural law participation by the human in eternal law First principle the judgment or knowledge of good and evil This is the part of the eternal law that applies to human choices and can be known by our natural reason 3 Human law civil law We create our own laws in order to apply the natural law to the speci c circumstances of our society 4 Divine law in the bible god reveals a special law to guide us to our supernatural end of eternal happiness with him Argument for kingship as best form of government developed the idea that a king who is a tyrant is no king at all and could be overthrown Beatitudo all humans have the same ultimate end Beatitudo means blessedness His View on the role and place of women in creation they are just used for procreation It is a noble process for the woman to have sex and go through birth Nominalism and realism Nominalism the doctrine that general or abstract words do not stand for objectively existing entities and that universals are no more than names assigned to them the philosophical theory that the variety of objects to which a single general word such as dog applies have nothing in common but the name Realism Ontologyontological argument an argument for the existence of God attempts the method of a priori knowledge before experience proof which uses intuition and reason alone The argument examines the concept of God and states that if we can think of the greatest possible being then it must exist Chaucer Three orders of society represented among the pilgrims Merchants Clergy Lords Feudalism military hierarchy in which a ruler lord offers mounted ghters a unit of land to control in exchange for a military service Swearing on the bible or relics of saint s seals the deal Pilgrimage a journey to a place associated with someone or something well known or respected Thomas Beckett was appointed archbishop of Canterbury by his friend King Henry II of England His allegiance shifted from Henry to the Church Henry Who will rid me of his meddlesome priest Becket is murdered by four of Henry s Knight in 1170 while at the church alter Score 1 for the churchBecket was canonized and Henry was humiliated The pilgrims were going to the shrine of him during the Canterbury tales The Pardoner s Tale three guys try to nd death because he killed their friend They come across an old man and asked him where to find death The old man said that he was trying to find death but he would not take him He then says they can find death at the foot of a tree They go there and find a bag of gold They decide to steal the bag but not in the middle of the day They draw straws for getting food and wine and the youngest brother gets the smallest straw He goes to town and then two other brothers decided to kill him when he gets back The youngest brother decides to poison the wine He comes back they kill him and then they drink the wine and die a slow death All three have found death Wife of Bath s Tale a knight in king Arthur s court rapes a woman The queen gives him the punishment of finding what women really want in a one year time period He asks every woman and they all say something different The day he comes back to the queen he asks an old hag what women want she says that she ll tell him if he promises to giver her whatever she wants whenever she wants He agrees and she says that women want sovereignty over their husbands The queen accepts this answer The old hag declares that she wants to marry the knight he refuses and then gives in and they get married In their marriage bed he declares that he is unhappy because she is ugly She gives him the choice of her being faithful and ugly or beautiful and unfaithful He gives the choice to her and she is pleased with that choice so she becomes fair and faithful They live happily ever after The end The Black Death three different strains of the disease killed 3050 of the European population between 13481353 People questioned the Church who was supposed to protect them No one knew the cause how it was transmitted but knew to blame the Jews poisoned the wells and cats A cult of death became popular in art Hundred Years War England vs France Joan of arc heard voices from God and wanted to fight in the war This inspired France to win Machiavelli Qualities of the Renaissance person A Renaissance man was a man of many Talents poetry philosophy literature geometry art technology etc Distinction between new and existing states and how to acquire them Signi cance of owning and understanding the use of arms Virtti vs Vir and Virtue from first half of the semester defined as being successful at one s chosen activity Virtue is the ability to harness the fickle fortuna the ability to seize the opportunities to minimize the rises preparedness for actions occasional rashes and braveryiwe can sum it up as possessing the ability and qualities to succeed in the chosen activity Machiavelli is concerned with practical outcomes Nature and role of F ortuna circumstances and opportunitiesshould inform the decisions of the ruler a good ruler should be able to take advantage even of the most perilous circumstances Fortuna is a combination of fate and luck Be prepared for the worst hope for the best The Medici Familymost powerful family in Florence during the 1400s Wealth based on textiles and banking Pico Della Mirandola Primary distinction between humans and other animals human beings can only change themselves through free will Signi cance of secular humanism in his thought focuses on human values and concerns It rejects a higher power A man surpasses the dignity and glory of angels by exercising philosophy He will be an angel in the Son of God if intellectual Ifyou are a philosopher you are an angel Humans as chameleons we can change according to our free will Luther Signi cance of the invention of printing to the reformation also Johann Gutenberg 95 theses widely regarded as the primary catalyst for the Protestant Reformation The disputation protests against clerical abuses especially in regard to indulgences Indulgences these were his main objections The church was rebuilding St Peter s so they wanted money The church would take scriptures and say it means this so give us money and they made up indulgences people bought these so they could get into heaven By doing this they were distorting the word of God Luther did not like this and believed it should end and that everything should be left for one s own interpretation Three Walls of Roman Catholicism and Luther s objections 1 Church says spiritual power is above temporal power a Christian law is about the law of the state so they do whatever they want Popes were not better than everyone else priesthood of all believers 2 Only Popes could interpret scripture a Everyone should be able to interpret scripture in their own way 3 Only Popes can call council a Councils for debating formal issues If Pope thought power threatened might not call council and issue might not get resolved Sola de and sold scriptura justification and salvation through faith alone all you need is to believe Scripture alone is the sole authority and people should be able to interpret scripture themselves and not rely on a higher authority s interpretation there is no authority on this The opposition to AugustineAmbrose s allegorical interpretations Priesthood of all baptized believers If you are a believer you have the right to priesthood and interpret the Bible in your own way Transubstantiation the change of the substance of host bread and sacramental wine into the substance of the Body and Blood of Jesus Luther on Aristotle holidays education pilgrimage etc Wanted greater educational opportunities for men and women Since it was everyone s duty to read the Bible women had to be educated so they could read Wittenberg John Wycliffe Counter reformation Galileo Geo centric vs helio centric theory of the universe Geo The earth is the center of the universe Helio The sun is the center of the universe and the earth and planets revolve around it Ptolemy mathematician astronomer poet geographer astrologer poet Copernicus is often regarded as the starting point of modern astronomy and the defining epiphany that began the scientific revolution He created a heliocentric model whit the Sun as the center of the universe demonstrated that the observed motions of celestial objects can be explained without putting Earth at rest in the center of the universe Galileo s discoveries on the moon the sun other planets and stars The moon Galileo saw that the light was spread unevenly on the moon and came to the conclusion that there were craters and lunar mountains on it The Sun the earth circles around the sun He was also the first person to observe sunspots The Stars he discovered the satellites around Jupiter Because of the telescope he could see stars unseen by the naked eye He argued that the stars that were dimmer in light were farther away from earth than the bright ones Con ict between Galileo s theories and the Christian Scripture The church was about to condemn Copernicus work when Galileo talked to the pope Pope Urban VIII and him were good friends and he admired his work Urban wanted to be included in his next work and his say on heliocentrism Galileo put him under a pseudonym Simplicio The audiences did not agree with Simplicio s ideas Urban did not take this likely and condemned heliocentrism fro false and contrary to Scripture Galileo was called to defend is writings but was sentenced to house arrest on terms of heresy His writings were banned and he was not allowed to publish any more of his writings His method on trying to reconsolidate the latter two his message in the Letter to the Grand Duch ess General Themes 0 The Good Life 0 Nature and the Supernatural o Seneca Aristotle Plato o Pico Aquinas Socrates o Fate and Free Will 0 Faith vs Scientific Method 0 o Augustine Aristotle Plato Galileo Aquinas 0 Relationship between Humans and Gods o The Citizen and the ideal Mark Paul Qur an State Government Aquinas Augustine o Augustine Plato Luther
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