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A&P 1, Ch. 9 Review Notes

by: Jamesia Arnold

A&P 1, Ch. 9 Review Notes BIOL 2010

Marketplace > U of M > Biology > BIOL 2010 > A P 1 Ch 9 Review Notes
Jamesia Arnold
U of M
GPA 3.066

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About this Document

Certain key points that are in these notes may end up on your quiz for this chapter
Human Anatomy and Physiology I
Mr. Parris
Class Notes
Anatomy and Physiology 1
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jamesia Arnold on Monday February 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 2010 at U of M taught by Mr. Parris in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology I in Biology at U of M.


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Date Created: 02/22/16
CH. 9 JOINTS:  Joints contribute to homeostasis by holding bones together in ways that allow for movement & flexibility.  Joint: a part of contact between 2 bones, bone & cartilage or bone & teeth. Arthrology: scientific study of joints. Kinesiology: study of motion of the human body  Joints are classified structurally, based on their anatomical characteristics & functionally, based on the type of movement they permit.  Structural classification is based on: Presence or absence of a space between articulating bones, synovial cavity & type of connective tissue that binds the bones together.  Fibrous joints: No synovial cavity. Bones are held together by dense irregular connective tissue that is rich in collagen fiber.  Cartilaginous joints: No synovial cavity. Bones are held together by cartilage.  Synovial joints: Bones that have a synovial cavity and united by the dense irregular connective tissue of an articular capsule and often by accessory ligaments  Functionally, joints are classified as:  Synarthrosis: An immovable joint  Ampiarthrosis: A slightly movable joint  Diathrosis: A freely movable joint Fibrous Joints: Permits little or no movement. Types of fibrous joints: 1. Suture: composed of a thin layer of dense irregular connective tissue; only occur between bones of the skull 2. Syndesmosis: there is a greater distance between articulating surfaces and more dense irregular connective tissue than in a suture 3. Interosseous membrane: A substantial sheet of dense irregular connective tissue that binds neighboring long bones Cartilaginous Joints: Permits little to no movement also. Types of Cartilaginous Joints: 1. Synchondroses: Connecting material is hyaline cartilage 2. Symphysis: the ends of articulating bones are covered with hyaline cartilage, but a broad, flat disc of fibrocartilage connects the bone Synovial Joints: Bones at this joint are covered by a layer of hyaline cartilage called articular cartilage. The cartilage covers the articulating surfaces of the bones with a smooth, slippery surface but does not bind them together. Nerve & Supply:  Nerves that supply a joint are the same as those that supply the skeletal muscles.  Synovial joints contain many nerve endings that are contributed to the articular capsule and associated ligaments. Bursae & Tendon Sheaths:  Saclike structures, bursae, are strategically situated to alleviate friction in some joints, such as shoulders & knees.  Bursae resembles joint capsules because their walls consist of an outer fibrous membrane of thin, dense connective tissue lined by synovial membrane.  Tendon sheaths- tube-like bursae; they wrap around certain tendons that experience considerable friction as they pass through tunnels formed by connective tissue & bone. Types of movement at Synovial Joints:  Grouped into 4 main categories: 1. Gliding 2. Angular Movement 3. Rotation 4. Special movement Major angular movements: -Flexion, Extension, Lateral Flexion, Hyperextension -Abduction, Adduction, Circumduction Special Movements: Elevation, Depression, Protraction, Retraction, Inversion, Eversion, Dorsiflexion, Plantar flexion, Supination, Pronation, Opposition Types of Synovial Joints: Plane Joints, Hinge Joints, Pivot Joints, Condyloid Joints, Saddle Joints, and Ball- and-Socket Joint Factors affecting contact & range of motion at Synovial Joints: Structure or shape of articulating bones, Strength or tension of joint ligaments, Arrangement and tension of muscles, Contact of soft parts, Hormones, and Disuse


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