Psychology chapter 2
Psychology chapter 2 Psychology 1301 (Skye Woestehoff)
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by JoyContreras on Monday February 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psychology 1301 (Skye Woestehoff) at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Skye Woestehoff in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 102 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Texas at El Paso.
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Date Created: 02/22/16
Chapter 2 Brain Section The Neuron: A neuron is a cell that transmits messages through electrical chemical Changes, these are the basic building blocks of the nervous system. Neuron Structure Dendrites: tree like structures that receive the messages and passes them to body cell in order for the cell to function. Soma: contains the nucleus, and ER( Endoplasmic reticulum) Axon: It is a nerve fiber that helps to pass electrical signals from cell body to terminal branch. Neurotransmitter: They transmit signals across a chemical synapse. Axon Hillock: the connection point between the cell body and the axon. Axon terminal: Allows the transmission of signal from one neuron to the next. Neurons are not connected to one another, signals must travel through a synapse: is the space between two neurons. What happens during the synapse is that a Neurotransmitter that is released from axon terminal of one neuron travels across the synapse and then it binds to receptor on the second neuron. This is how neurons communicate. Myelin Sheath: covers the axon, serves as an insulator in order to prevent signals from getting loss. It also fastens the speed of signals. Nodes of Ranvier: Gaps between the myelin sheath, contributes to signal conduction. Terminal Button: these are located at the end of a neuron, release a neurotransmitter. Neurotransmitters 1. Excitatory: make the neuron more likely to fire cause depolarization. 2. Inhibitory: make the neuron less likely to fire= Hyperpolarization . 3. Reuptake: the sending neuron reabsorbs the neurotransmitter molecules form the synapse. Neurotransmitters can also be antagonist and agonist. Antagonist doesn’t allow any effect to occur. Inhibitor/ blocks neurotransmitter and stops its action. Antagonist mimics the neurotransmitter. Neurons Interneurons mediate between sensory inputs and motor inputs Afferent and Efferent Neurons Afferent Neuron Carry incoming sensory information to the brain and spinal cord. Movement: outside -> In Efferent Neuron: Carry outgoing information/ messages to muscles/glands and muscle contraction. Movement: Inside -> out Function 1. Neurons use “ all or Nothing” ( the idea that action potentials occur or they don’t )signals called action potentials to transmit information to and from the Central Nervous system( Consist of the Brain and Spinal cord) Action Potentials allow communication with other neurons, they go for the axon when action potential reaches the axons terminal branches then to stimulate the release of neurotransmitters. Can receive excitatory and inhibitory inputs. Resting potential: neurons stable negative charge when the cell is not sending any signals, action potential begins. An event has to be important enough for the action potential to happen Action Potential Steps 1. Threshold of excitation is exceeded- the amount of stimulation needed to trigger an action potential. 2. Depolarization: sodium ions rush into the cell making it more positively charged. 3. Repolarization: Potassium ions leave the cell. Process by which cell becomes much more negative. 4. Too much potassium leaves causing Hyperpolarization(the membrane becomes more negative than the resting potential. Causing refractory period and another action potential can begin. Parts Of the Brain The brain is divided into 3 areas: FOREBRAIN, MIDBRAIN and HINDBRAIN. 1. Forebrain is the most recently evolved portion of the brain. 2. Midbrain is the relaying point between the forebrain and the hindbrain. It sends sensory and visual information to the forebrain and motor instructions to the hindbrain. 3. Hindbrain is responsible for involuntary actions, has cerebellum(process sensory information, coordinates movements and balance.) ponds( involved with sleep arousal and coordinate movements.) and medulla( Unconscious actions, breathing hearth beating etc. Cerebral cortex is the gray matter of the brain. Right hemisphere and Left hemisphere Each hemisphere provides different sets of functions. The right Hemisphere controls nonverbal task and left controls logical and analytical. The corpus callosum connects the two hemispheres allowing them to communicate. Contra lateralization means that right side of the brain controls left and left side controls right. Lobes of the brain 1.Frontal Lobe is responsible for planning, decision making, personality, memory, language. Motor cortex is what controls movement and precise control. 2. Parietal Lobe monitors body’s position in space. It integrates sensory information among various modalities. Processes information in the sense of touch. 3. Occipital lobe is responsible for processing visual information, damaging this lobe of the brain will cause loss of vision and create hallucinations. 4. Temporal lobe is responsible for hearing and speech, it holds the primary auditory cortex. When this lobe. Limbic System The limbic system regulates memory, it is composed of nerves and networks in the brain and controls basic emotions. It is composed of the thalamus, hypothalamus and hippocampus. Thalamus sends sensory information to the higher brain except for smell. Hypothalamus regulates functions like temperature, sleeping and eating. Oversees endocrine (composed of glands )and autonomic system( regulates key voluntary functions of the body). Hippocampus is involved with memory forming, organizing, and storing information. 1. Memory There are different types of memory. -Memory -Encoding -Storage -Retrieval 2. Three stage Model Three stage model consists of sensory memory, short term memory and Long term memory. Sensory memory is a brief recording of sensory information it includes iconic and echoic memory. Echoic is auditory information(sounds) and iconic is visual information( images) Short term memory is a mental representation, it only holds a few items for a few seconds and then you will forget about them within a few minutes. Long term memory is when you encode information and you will never forget this, there is no limit to encode information. Ways to improve memory Rehearsal 1. Levels of processing -shallow processing is what the word sounds like. Shallow processing will not help you improve your memory, some examples are: highlighting, copying word for word from books or typing your notes on a computer during a lecture. It is a lazy way to process information, you are just not thinking about it. 2. Deep Processing: Fully analyzing information in terms of meaning and importance, you encode it. Improving Memory One of the most effective ways to improve your memory is when you use the method of loci. The method of loci is a mnemonic device adopted in ancient Roman and Greek treaties. You first visualize a place you know well then imagine the items around that place. Other ways to improve your memory is by chunking, mnemonics, hierarchies, putting things into your own words, practice the material over time, test yourself and spacing effect( is when you arrange the material into sections and well distributed.) - Self –Reference effect is when you remember information because it is meaningful to you, it is easier to learn information. Why do we forget? 1. We forget because we don’t encode or store information. This is because we are not paying attention and that causes us to not encode and then store the information around us. Change of blindness – think about things in order to encode them. Preventing Encoding Failure First of all you should pay attention then think about the information that is being given to you, repeat it and then maybe write about it. 2. Storage failure is when information decays after encoding. To prevent this, reviewing the material should work. 3. Retrieval failure -Proactive Interference; old information will disrupt new information. - Retroactive Interference: new will mess up with new information. More ways to improve memory 1. Context-Depending Memory recall is better is tested in the same content. 2. State -Depending Memory recall is best when the state is similar at encoding and retrieval. Types of Long Term Memory 1. Explicit/Declarative Memory -things that we know, such as facts and knowledge=Semantic Memory. Episodic memory: personal events that occurred to you. 2. Implicit/non-declarative - Memory without conscious recall. Procedural memory is knowing how to do things, you can do a task but you really can’t explain how you did it. Walking is an example and so is playing an instrument.
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