PSY 247, Sleep Disorders and Eating Disorders
PSY 247, Sleep Disorders and Eating Disorders PSY 247
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Joy Mizrahi on Monday February 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 247 at University of North Carolina - Wilmington taught by Robert McNamara in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see abnormal psychology in Psychlogy at University of North Carolina - Wilmington.
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Date Created: 02/22/16
PSY 247—Notes 2/18/16 Sleep Disorders Sleep Disorders -Two major types Parasomnias Dyssomnias The Importance of Sleep -Just a few hours’ sleep deprivation decreases immune functioning -Sleep deprivation affects all aspects of daily functioning -Lack of sleep can cause depression symptoms Parasomnias -Nature of Parasomnias The problem is not with sleep itself Problem is abnormal events during sleep Sleep terrors -Facts and associated features More common in children than adults Child cannot easily be awakened during the episode -Treatment Antidepressants and benzodiazepines in severe cases Sleep Walking -Sleep walking disorder- somnambulism Occurs during non-REM sleep Usually during first few hours of deep sleep Person must leave the bed Usually resolves itself without treatment Nightmare Disorder -Repeated episodes of extended, extremely dysphoric dreams leading to distress Insomnia disorder -One of the most common sleep disorders -Problems initiating/maintaining sleep -35% of adults report daytime sleepiness -Only diagnosed as a sleep disorder if its not better explained by a different condition Hypersomnolence Disorder -Sleeping too much or excessive sleep -Experience excessive sleepiness as a problem -Sleep is non-restorative Narcolepsy -Principal symptom: Recurrent intense need for sleep, lapses into sleep or napping -Also accompanied by at least one Cataplexy- Strong emotions (e.g. laughter lead to muscle weakness and collapse Hypocretin deficiency Go into REM very quickly (<15 minutes) Breathing related sleep disorders -Obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea -Central sleep apnea -Sleep-related hypoventilation Circadian Rhythm Sleep-Wake Disorder -Disturbed sleep leading to distress and/or functional impairment -Due to brain’s inability to synchronize day and night Medical Treatments -Insomnia Benzodiazepines and over the counter -Hypersomnia and narcolepsy Stimulants (i.e., Ritalin) -Breathing-related Medication CPAP Weight loss -Circadian rhythm disorders Phase delays -CBT-I -Relaxation and stress reduction -Sleep hygiene PSY 247—Notes 2/23/16 Eating Disorders Two Major types: Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa -Severe disruptions in eating behavior -Weight and shape have disproportionate influence on self-concept -Extreme fear and apprehension about gaining weight -Strong sociocultural origins -Emphasis on thinness Binge eating disorder -Involves disordered behavior but may involve fewer cognitive distortions about weight and shape -Obesity- considered a symptom, but not a disorder itself Bulimia Nervosa -Binge eating- hallmark of bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder Eating excess amounts of food in a discrete period of time Eating is perceived as uncontrollable May be associated with guilt shame or regret May hide behavior from family members Foods consumed are often high in sugar, fat or carbohydrates -Compensatory behaviors- designed to “make up for” binge eating Most common: Purging -Most common: Self induced vomiting -May also include use of diuretics or laxatives Excessive exercise Fasting or food restriction -Associated medical features Most are with in 10% of normal body weight Purging methods can result in severe medical problems -Erosion of dental enamel, electrolyte imbalance -Kidney failure, cardiac arrhythmia, seizures, intestinal problems, permanent colon damage Associated psychological features -Most are overly concerned with body shape -Fear of gaining weight -Most have comorbid psychological disorders Anorexia Nervosa -Extreme weight loss- hallmark of anorexia Restriction of calorie intake below energy requirements Defined as 15% below expected weight May also involve binging and purging Intense fear of weight gain and losing control over eating People suffering from anorexia show a relentless pursuit of thinness Often begins with dieting -Associated features Most show marked disturbance in body image Most have comorbid other psychological disorders Anorexia is the most deadly mental disorder Binge Eating Disorder -New in DSM-5 -Binge eating without associated compensatory behaviors -Associated with distress and/or functional impairment -Associated features Many persons with binge eating disorder are obese Some, but not all, have concerns about shape and weight Often older than anorexia and bulimia More psychopathology vs. non-binging obese people Facts and Statistics -Bulimia Majority are female- 90% Onset typically in adolescence Lifetime prevalence is about 1.1% for females and 0.1% for males 6-7% of college women suffer from bulimia at some point Tends to be chronic if left untreated -Anorexia Majority are female and white From middle to upper-middle class families Usually develops around early adolescence More chronic and resistant than bulimia Lifetime prevalence approximately 1% Cross cultural factors -Develop in non-Western women after moving to Western countries -Rare in African American women Causes -Media and cultural considerations -Biological considerations Partial genetic component Deficits in serotonin may contribute to binging -Psychological and behavioral considerations Low sense of personal control and self-confidence Perfectionist attitude Treatments -Bulimia CBT- treatment of choice Antidepressants -Binge eating CBT Interpersonal Self help -Anorexia Weight restoration Prognosis poorer than anorexia
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