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Week 6

by: Emma Trokel
Emma Trokel


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One week of notes
Nutrition and Health Performance
S. Nelson
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emma Trokel on Monday February 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 2420-001 at University of Colorado at Boulder taught by S. Nelson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Nutrition and Health Performance in Psychlogy at University of Colorado at Boulder.


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Date Created: 02/22/16
Week 6     Chapter 8 ­ Vitamins    Vitamins: Basic Concepts  ● What is a vitamin?  ○ A complex organic compound that:  ■ Is not made by the body ­  or made in amounts that are enough to  maintain a good health  ■ Occurs naturally in common foods  ■ Causes a deficiency disorder when it is missing from the diet   ■ Restores good health, if the deficiency disorder is treated early by  supplying the missing substance     Sources of Vitamins   ● Natural Sources:  ○ Plants, animals, fungi, and bacteria   ● Synthetic:  ○ Made in laboratories by chemists synthesized by microbes in laboratories  ● Most natural and synthetic forms have equal activity in the body except:  ○ Natural vitamin E: greater activity than synthetic   ○ Synthetic folic acid: greater activity than natural     Classifying Vitamins   ● Fat soluble ­ A, D,E, & K  ○ associated with lipids in foods and the body  ■ do not dissolve in water or urine   ● Stored in the body and may be toxic    ● Water soluble ­ B vitamins and C  ○ Dissolve in watery components of foods and the body   ■ excreted in urine   ■ most are not stored to a major extent   ● generally non toxic     Roles Of Vitamins   Vitamins may:   ­ have hormonal action (e.g. vitamin D)  ­ participate in certain chemical reactions  ­ regulate a variety of body processes   ­ cell division   ­ growth and maintenance of tissues      Vitamin Absorption   ● Most absorption occurs in small intestine   ○ absorption is not 100% efficient   ● Absorption generally increases when more of the vitamin is needed:  ○ Growth (during infancy and adolescence)  ○ Pregnancy   ○ Lactation (milk production)    Populations at Risk for Vitamin Deficiency   ● Alcoholics  ● Older adults  ● hospitalized people (long term)  ● People with:  ○ Anorexia nervosa   ○ Certain gastrointestinal disorders  ○ Rare metabolic conditions     Vitamin A  ● Retinol (preformed A):  ○ most active form; in animal foods  ● Beta­carotene (provitamin A)  ○ Carotenoid that the body can convert to some retinol   ● Major Functions:  ○ Normal vision and reproduction   ○ cellular growth   ○ Immune system activity   ○ Epithelial cell production and maintenance     What is Night Blindness?  ● The inability to see in dim light  ● Early sign of vitamin A deficiency   ○ the retina, the light­sensitive area inside each eye, contains rods and cones that  are specialized nerve cells essential for vision   ■ rods and cones need vitamin A to function properly                     Vitamin A Adequacy and Deficiency   ● Dietary Adequacy:  ○ RDA: 700 ­900 mcg RAE    ● Vitamin A Deficiency:  ○ certain epithelial cells produce too much keratin  ■ Keratin ­ tough protein found in hair, nails, and outermost layers of skin   ○ Excess Keratin:  ■ Skin becomes rough and bumpy  ■ Inner eyelid cells that normally secrete mucus to protect cornea become  keratinized   ● can result in xerophthalmia  Vitamin A Toxicity   ● Excess vitamin A (retinol) may lead to liver damage   ● Excess beta­carotene (carotenemia):  ○ yellowing of skin due to excessive beta­carotene intake  ■ generally harmless  ■ Accutane     Vitamin D  ● Rickets: vitamin D deficiency in children   ○ results in soft bones that do not grow properly and become deformed     Why is Vitamin D Necessary?  ● Vitamin D is needed for:  ○ Metabolism of calcium and phosphorus   ○ Production and maintenance of healthy bones   ● Parathyroid hormone (PTH):  ○ Released when blood calcium levels drop  ○ Stimulates kidneys to increase active vitamin D produces and decreases urinary  calcium excretion     Vitamin D Adequacy and Deficiency  ● Dietary Adequacy:  ○ RDA: 15 mcg/day for adults < 70 years of age   ● Vitamin D deficiency:  ○ Rickets  ■ Uncommon  ■ May develop in breastfed infants   ○ Osteomalacia ­ “adult rickets”        Vitamin D Toxicity  ● Upper limit (UL):  ○ 100 mcg/day (4000 IU)  ● Vitamin D toxicity:  ○ Too much calcium is absorbed   ■ The excess calcium is deposited in soft tissues including kidneys, heart,  and blood vessels     Vitamin E   ● Alpha­tocopherol  ● Functions:  ○ fat­soluble antioxidant found in cells   ■ protects polyunsaturated fatty acids (good)    ● maintains immune system function       Vitamin E Adequacy, Deficiency, and Toxicity  ● Dietary Adequacy   ○ RDA: 15 mg/day  ● Vitamin E Deficiency   ○ Impaired immune system function  ○ Nerve damage   ● Vitamin E Toxicity   ○ Upper limit (UL) 1000 mg/day  ○ Excess may interfere with vitamin K’s role in blood clotting     How do Antioxidants work?  ● By giving up an electron to a free radical, an antioxidant protects other molecules.  ○ Action stabilizes the free radical   ● Beta­carotene and vitamins E & C function as antioxidants     antioxidants protect ­ phospholipids, DNA, unsaturated fatty acid, proteins ­ from free radicals     Vitamin K   ● Liver needs vitamin K to make certain clotting factors                 Vitamin K Adequacy, Deficiency, and Toxicity  ● Dietary Adequacy:  ○ Al: 120 mcg/d for men; 90 mcg/d for women   ● Vitamin K Deficiency:  ○ May occur in newborns or   ○ on long ­ term antibiotic therapy   ● Vitamin K Toxicity:  ○ None known for natural forms   ○ synthetic forms are toxic  ● produces vitamin K in the bacteria in our intestines     Thiamin   ● Functions:  ○ Part of coenzyme involved in release of energy from carbohydrates  ○ Metabolism of certain amino acids  ○ Synthesis of neurotransmitters     Vitamins do not have calories / give energy     Thiamin Deficiencies  ● Beriberi:  ○ People are weak, have poor muscular coordination, and may develop  cardiovascular problems and edema. Note severe pitting edema (fancy way of  saying swelling) in woman’s left leg.  ● Wernicke­Korsakoff syndrome:  ○ Typically seen in alcoholics, because alcohol decreases absorption and  increases excretion.     Riboflavin   ● Functions:  ○ Coenzyme for metabolism of carbohydrate, lipids, and amino acids   ● Deficiency:  ○ May occur in people who do not drink milk or eat enriched grains    ★ Because B vitamins are water soluble they are often added in grains     Niacin   ● Functions:  ○ Part of two coenzymes that participate in at least 200 reactions   ●  Deficiency:  ○ Pellagra: the “4 D’s” of pellagra   Dermatitis, Diarrhea, Dementia, Death     Folate   ● Folic acid (synthetic) and Folacin   ● Functions:  ○ Good Food Sources of Folate:  ■ Leafy green vegetables, liver, legumes, asparagus, broccoli, and oranges   ● A B vitamin      Neural Tube Defects   ● During the first few weeks after conception, the neural tube forms  ○ Neural tube develops into the brain and spinal cord  ● Folate­deficient pregnant women are at risk if giving birth to infants with neural tube  defects  ● Anencephaly   ○ Brain does not form properly  ● Spina bifida  ○ Spine does not form properly before birth and fails to enclose the spinal cord     Vitamin C  ● Functions ­ not part of coenzyme:  ○ Collagen synthesis  ■ protein that gives strength to connective tissues  ■ collagen makes up your tendons   ○ Antioxidant activity   ○ Other roles:  ■ Immune system functioning   ■ Synthesis of bile, and certain neurotransmitters and hormones  ● Dietary Adequacy:  ■ RDA = 75 to 90 mg/day (smokers have higher RDA’s)                     


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