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PowerPoint 7: Perinatal

by: Brittany Woody

PowerPoint 7: Perinatal PSB4504

Marketplace > University of Florida > PSB4504 > PowerPoint 7 Perinatal
Brittany Woody

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Notes for powerpoint 7 (there is no powerpoint 6)
Developmental Psychobiology
Dr. Donald J. Stehouwer
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittany Woody on Monday February 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSB4504 at University of Florida taught by Dr. Donald J. Stehouwer in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views.


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Date Created: 02/22/16
Friday, February 19, 2016 PowerPoint 7 Transition from the Womb - Birth as a “non-event”: neurobehavioral systems required by the newborn are functional prior to birth (hiccup-like, breathing-like) • “Forward reference” or “environment expectant”: by Weiss; develops anticipating needs, not in response to them; contrasts with “environment- dependent” - sucking, swallowing, “breathing”, “hiccups”, yawning” are forward reference; most occur mid-term - refinement of ocular columns is example of environment- dependent - Other than constraints imposed by the intra-uterine environment (fetuses cannot cry without air, for example), there is little behavioral difference between a late-term fetus and a newborn; newborns are not doing anything new after birth - What distinguishes a newborn from a fetus is that there behaviors are necessary for survival; breathing is functional but necessary in newborn - Initiation of breathing: noxious stimuli; spanking a newborn is not necessary to initiate breathing, and birthing in warm water makes little sense from either a physiological or evolutionary perspective • temperature change is a noxious stimulus • anoxia produced by clamping the umbilical cord • fluid is expelled from lungs during delivery, the remainder quickly absorbed • changes in other sensory inputs - Infants learn the sound of a mother’s voice in utero; infants prefer sound of mother’s voice; do not have preference for father’s voice compared to other males; prefers how mother’s voice sounds in utero to how it sounds outside the womb (proof that newborns learn the sound of mother’s voice in utero) • measured preference based on how the rate of suckling changes in response to hearing different voices - Sucking and swallowing are essential to the newborn, but have been expressed by the fetus 1 Friday, February 19, 2016 - About the only thing not apparent in the fetus that is expressed by the newborn is crying - From a neurobehavioral perspective, birth can be considered to be a “non-event,” unlike, for example, amphibian metamorphosis • better analogy for metamorphosis is weaning - Oxytocin stimulates uterine contractions, but what stimulates oxytocin release? • labor is induced medically with an injection of oxytocin - Surfactant protein A (SF-A) initiates birth: makes liquids “wetter”, reduces surface tension; essential for respiration after birth • production in lungs of fetus is signal that lungs are developed; SF-A is released into the amniotic fluid and triggers oxytocin release • begins being produced in mice at 17days, birth at 19 days • begins being produced by human fetus at 32 weeks, birth at 40 weeks - Other than the capacity for independent respiration, there is little relationship between maturity and birth/ hatching - Newborn opossum continues to develop in the mother’s pouch after birth - Precocial: born in a relatively mature state (guinea pig, kittens) - Altricial: born in a relatively immature state (opossum, rats) - Humans are born with relatively mature sensory systems (precocial in that respect); motor systems are very immature at birth, can’t roll over (altricial in that respect) - Changes in total brain weight as a function of age in different animals: brain growth spurts reach a peak much after birth in altricial animals, and before birth in precocial; occurs around birth in humans - Study of survival of animals in pure nitrogen environment (no oxygen) at different ages: death of the animal is determined by survival of the brain; less mature brains can survive longer in oxygen free environments (younger animals of the same species; more altricial animals) • newborn rats survived for an hour in the oxygen free environment with no long-term brain damage 2 Friday, February 19, 2016 • human infants can survive longer in hypoxic environment than older children (fall in pool, etc) - Most caudal parts are more mature, more rostral parts are less mature; more mature requires more oxygen consumption; throughout development, rostral begins to consume more oxygen than caudal - Maturation of myelination moves caudally to rostrally - Neonatal period in rat is first 2 weeks; weaning begins at 2 weeks - Newborn rat cannot flip himself over (“right himself”) when placed on their back in a supine position - Rats 0-4 days old can right themselves even if given a caudal transection - After 4 days old, more caudal transections in rats make it increasingly harder for them to right themselves - At four days, the caudal parts of the brain begin developing connections with rostral parts of brain; before four days, the caudal areas can act independently; after four days, the caudal parts of the brain cannot operate without connections to the rostral parts - Caudal brain organizers itself as rat ages, and the further they have organized, the more harmful transection is - Brains transected at four days could develop normally, with little change based on where it was cut; after four days, the more caudally the cuts were made, the more hinderance to development there was - In an experiment where spines were cut, there was no hinderance to development if the surgery was done between 0 and 12 days; at 15 days, there was loss of control 3


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