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2 weeks of notes

by: sydney emershaw

2 weeks of notes Criminal justice 220

sydney emershaw
Penn State
GPA 2.73

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About this Document

these went on late because we had a snow day and an early dismissal, sorry
Courts and the prosecution process
Mary Ann Probst
Class Notes
25 ?




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Popular in Criminology and Criminal Justice

This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by sydney emershaw on Monday February 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Criminal justice 220 at Pennsylvania State University taught by Mary Ann Probst in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Courts and the prosecution process in Criminology and Criminal Justice at Pennsylvania State University.

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Date Created: 02/22/16
2/11/16 Prosecutors   Elected or appointed    Responsible for prosecution of individuals   Who commits criminal acts   2 types  o Federal  o State  Federal system   Attorney general (AG)  Eric holder   United states attorney (USAs)   Assistant united states attorney (AUSAs)   Solicitor general   State prosecutors   States attorney General (AG)  o Kathleen kane   County prosecutors (District attorney)  o Richard Consiglio  Prosecutor information   From beginning, system believed prosecution initiated by the government  o Crimes against the state, not individual victims   Shift to prosecutors in local areas due to geographic distance instead of being centralized   In beginning, prosecutors were appointed,  o 1820’s becomes a locally elected position  Evolution of prosecution role   Progressive era  o Crime commission reports introduced change­ ignored the realities of the gob   Discretion (present in all three parts of the criminal justice system)  o Observation based   Presidential commission of 1967  o Provide structure identified 3 functions   Should offence be charged   Duty to present government case in court   Investigate and instigate the criminal process  The ’67 commission gave rise to professionalism  o Felony case processor   New Paradigm  o Community prosecution  2/18/16 Defense Council   Duties  o Advise, represents and acts on behalf of the defendant  o Portrayed in a negative light   Association with clients   Ie…drug dealers and child perpetrators  Other duties   Advise clients on sentencing choices   Knowledgeable on law, court rulings and local judges’ customs   Relay costs of pleading guilty   Investigate cases   Interview witnesses  Types of defense Council   Private­ defendants pay attorney fees   Indigent­ represent people who cannot pay  Private   Client pays for attorney’s services   Retainer  o Can be expensive, high costs does not equal experience or guarantee a specific  result  Indigent Defense Counsel   Represent indigent (poor) defendants in criminal proceedings    Available in both federal and state systems   Three main indigents defense sysytems  o Assigned counsel  o Contract model  o Public defender   Qualify for representation   Who pays for indigent representation?  o Usually completely paid for by the state  o County level pays salary of attorneys and investigators  o Bottom line the taxpayers pay for it  Assigned Counsel Model   Attorneys selected from a list  Ad Hoc­ are those in which the judge chooses a defense attorney on a case­by­case basis.  This system has been criticized because it can lead to favoritism and patronage  Coordinated assigned counsel­ rely on a coordinator who chooses the attorney, this  ensures consistency and fairness   Model used most often in rural areas   Attorneys are paid at a set rate  o Hourly  o Flat rate­ based on case  Contract model   State/ county contract with private attorneys   2 main types of contracts for defense counsel services  o Fixed price contract  o Fixed fee contract­ fixed number of cases with a fixed price per case  Public Defender   First program began in 1913 in LA, CA   Relies on full or part­time attorneys   What happens if there is a conflict of interest?­ get a different attorney  Research of Defense Counsel on the Job   R. Flemming­ evaluated counsel decision to waive a preliminary hearing     P. Nardulli­ “insider justice” difference between regular counsel and privately retained  counsel in system   A. Blumberg­ says counsel not “zealous advocates” for clients, but “double agents”   o R. Uphoff­ added the term “beleaguered dealer” to blumberg’s categories   Defense counsel and their clients   Public clients­ less trusting than private paying clients   They believe indigent clients do not trust them because they believe counsel is part of the  court system  Client’s perceptions of their counsel   Relationship with counsel is very important   Clients active role in working with the attorney in crucial    Defendants with limited knowledge of court process trust counsel LESS   Low trust with court appointed counsel  Public Perception of Counsel   Media portrayal is influential   Greedy, manipulative, corrupt   Negative connections with politics, judiciary, government, business and law  enforcement­ power issue   Need more policing of group to protect citizens


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