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Exam2notes.pdf 1st half

by: Andrew Richardson

Exam2notes.pdf 1st half BIO

Marketplace > Mississippi State University > BIO > Exam2notes pdf 1st half
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Biology 2 test 2 notes
Biology 2
Dr. Holder
Class Notes
Biology2 Thomas Holder
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Andrew Richardson on Monday February 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO at Mississippi State University taught by Dr. Holder in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 46 views.


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Date Created: 02/22/16
Exam 2 Ch 35 Plant growth-  Indeterminate o Occurs in 2 ways 1. Simple cell division 2. Increase cell size  Sexual cell of angiosperm  Alteration cycle of angiosperms Sporophyte (diploid) 2N Gametophyte (haploid) 1N Macroscopic Gamete producing plant form Dominate Part Microscopic Produce flowers 2-7 cells Pollen and embryo sac Plant organs: Roots, Stems, leaves (stem and leaves are the shoot)  Development due to mitosis/cytokinesis  1 (primary)-elongation of plant organs o Primary plant tissues are result  1* tissue o 1* xylem-conduction tissue, water minerals o 1* phloem- conduction tissue o Epidermis- outermost primary tissue: protection o Parenchyma- storage of food and water; part of cortex/ pith o Collenchyma- protection of growing plant organs and support o Sclerenchyma- protection and support of plant organs  2* growth- expansion of plant organs o NOT ALL PLANTS HAVE THIS o Roots and stems 2 major groups on angiosperms  Monocots- all 1* growth  Dicots- most 1* and 2* growth At tips of roots and shoots are:  Meristems- “cell factories” cells are constantly dividing Apical-RAM root AM Meristem- SAM shoot AM Lateral meristem- rings in stem or root  Expansion… 2* growth Roots  Mostly underground  Function-anchorage, storage, absorption of water 4 regions  Region of maturation-done growing down  Region of elongation-root still growing down  Region of cell division-constant cell division  Root cap- protective tip of root Dicots have taproots. Monocots have fiberous root systems Bud= new shoot Node= any point on stem where leaf bud or branch arises Internode- region between 2 nodes Leaf Stem Dicots Monocots 1* growth (elongation) 1* (elongation) 2* growth (expansion) scattered vascular bundle Ringed vascular bundle VC= vascular cambium CC= cork cambium VC and CC both retain cell division properties to produce “rings” of 2* tissues inside/outside the cambium ring Are also lateral meristem VC rings  2* xylem (wood) inside  2*phloem (inner bark) outside CC rings  Peristem (outer bark) Replaces epidermis and cortex st 2* growth in stems. After 3 years 2* growth begins late 1 year Comparisons between plant organs  Leaves o 1* growth only o Dicot- net venation o Monocot- parallel venation  Roots o Monocots 1* growth and have pith and cortex o Dicots 1* 2* (most) just cortex  Stems o Monocots 1* o Dicots 1* 2* (most) Regulation of plant growth Horomones- “chemical messanmgers” mostly internal; transported in phloem tissue Interact with externsal environmental factors Controls- growth, seed germination, flowering, shedding leaves Growth inhibiting- mostly in fall/winter Growth promoting- mostly in spring/summer All horomones require ATP 5 Horomones st 1. Auxins- 1 groups of horomones isolated a. Produced in SHOOT TIPS LEAVES FRUITING SEEDS b. Growth promoting c. Effects i. Cell elongation ii. Stem expansion iii. Stem elongation iv. Promote development of fruit 2. Cytokinins a. Growth promoting b. Produced in seeds, fruits, and roots c. Effects i. Promotes mitosis and cytokinesis ii. Promote development of buds iii. Inhibit leaf senescence 3. Gibberellin- gilleren acids a. Growth promoting b. Effects i. Promote stem elongation by cell elongation ii. Promote cell division iii. Promote breakdown of food reserve in germinating seeds 1. Food breakdown a. Intake of water causing swelling b. Embryo secretes gibberellin c. Gibbs transports d. Aleurone layer secretes enzyme e. Starch >glucose> yields atp 4. Absusic acid a. Growth inhibiting b. Found in mature leaves, dormant buds and seeds c. Effects i. Enhibits cell elongation ii. Enhibits alpha… secretion iii. Promotes production of storage compounds in seed sto prevent early germination iv. Promotes leaf senescence 5. Ethelyne a. Growth inhibitor b. Not transported in plant c. Gas released from plant d. Effects i. Interacts with 3 growth promoters ii. Promotes absorbtion of leaves, fruits, and flowers iii. Promotes fruit ripening growth of seed requires breaking of dormancy. Combo of internal/external Internal External Hormones sunlight Stored food and water temperature Embryo swelling day length Soil moisture Seed containers: seed coat, embryo, stored food As seed coat cracks st  Radicle (1 root) grows down  Shoot (2ndroot) grows up Cotyledon-emerge  1 Cotolydon (monocot)  2 cotolydons (dicot) Seedling plant- result of mitosis/ cytokinesis Internal development Plant cells-> plant tissues-> plant organs -tissues -organs- roots, stem, leaf -organ system- plant Plant nutrition 16 essential  Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen (from CO2 and H20) The other 13 are from soil  Macronutrients (6) 1000 mg/ Kg dry weight o Nitrogen- main component of protein o Potassium- enzyme activation and open/close leaf stomata o Phosphorus- component of nucleic acids o Calcium- component of all cell walls, regulate membrane and enzyme activities o Sulfur-component of some proteins ad coenzymes o Magnesium- ezyme activation, component of cloryphyll  Micronutrients (7) >100 mg/ Kg dry weight o Molybdenum- nitrogen fixation, o Copper- activation or component of many enzymes o Zinc-activates or components of many enzymes o Manganese-part of chloroplast membrane o Chlorine- involved with ion balance o Boron- nucleic acid synthesis o Iron- clorphyl production Transport Ch 38 Movement of H2O and solids in plants H2O.. xylem soil nutrition food.. Phloem carbohydrares Importance of water  Photosynthesis  Support for plant organs  Conduction  Cell elongation  Nearly all chemical reactions  90% of plant cell  Primary solvent for most substances o Solute-chemical solution of tissue quality o Solution- mix of 2 or more compounds o Solvent- compound in solution Property of water  Polar molecule H + H O -  Hydrogen bonding- each water molecule is H bonded to 4 others Cohesions Adhesiveness- “cellulose” sticks to other polar compounds Temp stabilizer Transport Best biological solvent All 3 forms found in earths temp range Principles of molecule movement  Physical purposes o Bulk flow movement of molocules in response to gravity o Diffusion – movement of molocules along concentration grade from high to low o Osmosis- diffusion of water  Water movement (soil minerals) through plant o Transpiration- “cost” land plants pay. Have to get water  Ex. Corn requires 55 gallons of water, 98% is transpired into air  Transpiration- loss of water through stoma in leaves o CO2 goes in and O2 and H20 comes out o Guard cell pass- function is to regulates stroma. Control water loss Stroma Pair of guard cells open-O2 H2O out, Closed hold in H2O in; no O2 or CO2 out 1. Daylight/sunlight- CO2 low in leaf 2. Guard cell- “pump in” potassium 3. Water from nearby xylem moves by osmosis into guard cells-> “turgid” (swell) 4. Guard cells swell and open stoma 5. “pump out” potassium, water moves out, guard cells shrink closed Causes of water loss- ultimately to sunlight energy  Causes lower H2O concentration in mesophyll  Causes a pull of H2O by osmosis from leaf xylem; “pull” from stem xylem  Stem xylem connects to root system  Pulls in water and nutrients from soil Transpiration stream- pathway of transpiration Soil H20->root epi.->root cortex->root xylem->stem xylem-> leaf xylem- >mesophyll->atmosphere CAT Mechanism- “pulls”


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