Note for BIOL 152 with Professor Hagen at KU
Note for BIOL 152 with Professor Hagen at KU
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Date Created: 02/06/15
1282011 40400 PM I Most of the human genome is not protein coding genes Repeated Sequences 45 39Only 28 is transcribed into Rna Most of that is introns I Less than 5 encodes proteins Function of noncoding sequences often not clear so effect of mutations is 39uncertains 39note on silent mutations 39Adult Lactose Tolerance Advantageous where milk is available cultural 39 Northern European adult lactase persistence caused by C to T change within a regulatory gene East Africans G to C change at another location within same gene 39Lactase malabsorption 39 Lactose goes to large intenstine where bacteria use it in fermentation gases discomfort diarrhea beans have a similar property Variation in Populations Terms 39 Polymorphic Locus o More than one allele in population 0 If nly one monopmorphic Gene Pool I o A simplified model of a sexually reproducing pop 0 Includes all the alleles at a particular locus or loci in that pop Characterizing Gene Pools Genotype frequency 0 Prop of a pop with a particular genotype 39Allele Frequecy 0 Prop of a pop with part allele 0 Use p and q for two allele case I 0 CAN have 2 P D H2 39Q R H2 Simplifying Assumptions 39 o No migration in or out gene flow I o No mutation j o Mating is random 0 No natural selection 0 Equal prob of survival 0 prob of reprod 0 all genotypes have same relative fitness 0 Population is infinitely large or large enough Hardy Weinberg conditions EQUESTIONS FROM Al I ER LECTURE i 1 A polymorphic gene locus is located at more than one location on a gene Echromosome True or False 2 El 1282011 40400 PM 39Evolution Processes in Populations 1 39What conditions necessary for pop to be in Hardy Weinberg equilibrium 0 No selection mutation migration gene flow large pop random mating When pop s allele and genotype freq s are in equilibrium 0 Allele and genotype freq s don t change 39 25 class has ll nonpersistance in adult lactase persistence Assume HardyWeinberg conditions are met What is best estimate of the l allele 39frequency 0 50 freq of homozygotes are the same HW Evolution 0 NO change in freq no evolution 0 If any NOT met evolution does occur 0 Natural selection 0 Small pop size 0 Gene flow 0 Mutation Non random mating affects genotype freq not allele 39 Natural Selection survival of the fittest struggle for existence 0 Process in which certain inherited char s are more likely to survive 0 Different successes results in certain alleles being passed to the next generation in greater proportions than others 0 Probability relative to other characteristicstraits 39 Relative Fitness measure of the strength of natural selection 0 Contribution of an indiv relative to contribution of other indiv s in Pop 0 ALWAYS COMPARED TO ALTERNATIVES 0 Comparison is within a pop 39Components of 0 Survival up to reproductive age Mating Success sexual selection Number of offspring Number of SUCCESSFUL offspring Cont to group s success cooperation ioooo 2 Forms of Natural Selection o Directional Selection graph average may shift what was avg j may now be on the edge o In example purple butterfly has higher relative fitness 0 Selection for or against extremes 0 See figure 2313 0 disruptive selection breaks it into two distributions stabilizing selection narrows distribution 0 Only process that can produce consistent changes in a population and can lead to adaptation Pocket Mice coat color is example of adaptation 1 Human Birth Weight p 481 example of stabilizing selection 0 We ve changed so probably much wider now 39 O Adaptation common errors 1 39 0 Natural Selection starts with random variation among descendants but the results of ns are not random 0 Natural selection does not act for the good of a species 0 Indiv prod more offspring aren t necessarily better I 0 IN some cases can lead to extinction f o The process of natural selection seems so wasteful 0 Could org s produce oly the new genetic traits that will be I successful and avoid the losses caused by random mut 0 NO in gen there s no direct connection bw the mutationa processes and the phenotypes they produce MUTATIONS ARE RANDOM Forms of Selection 0 1 locus 2 allele case 0 Directional Example relative fitness AA gtAagtaa i Effect allele A increase allele a decrease o Stabilizing AA ltAagtaa Allele frequencies stay intermediate 0 Disruptive AA gtAaltaa One allele will increase chance while other will tend to 3 decrease 0 Simulation Models 0 Some stupid simulation on slide 39393939393939393939v1 1282011 40400 PM Vertical Evolution is the only way on quiz that the evolution of adaptations Ican occur NOT MUTATIONS Genetic Drift Bio 152 Monday Lecture 1282011 40400 PM I Know what hybrid zones are 39What is a Species o Reproductively isolate populations biological species concept 0 Pop descended from a common ancestor that share a common evolutionary fate phylogenetic species concept 39Allele frequencies moe strongly affected in smaller groups 39Which would best support conclusion that two pops belong to different species 0 There is no gene flow between populations gene flow means they re mating and mixing genes if they re not mating it is an indicator that they re not same species Geography of Speciation 0 Can be an extremely effective barrier to populative reproduction but is NOT essential r r regions where 2 species DO interbreed 0 Example two species of toad important for understanding the process of speciation Genetics of Reproductive Isolation o Polyploidy 0 Failure of cell division after chromosome duplication gives rise to tetraploid tissues thus gametes produced are diploid thus offspring with tetraploid karyotypes may be viable and fertile o Autopolyploid example one parent species 0 Alloploid has 2 parent species 39About Speciation 39 Don t get stuck on definitions Can occur through many processes Speciation genetics is active research field Rate may be fast or slow gradual accum of genetic diff o On average may take millions of years 0 O O O 2 HISTORY OF LIFE ON EARTH o The Origin of Life j o What do we know Not know i 0 Geological Record 0 What are fossils o How do we know their sequence and ages 0 History of Life on Earth part 1 o The first 4 billion years o iWhat is Life 0 Essential Props of all living organisms j 0 Have organized structure consisting of macromolecules o Metabolism can carry out chemical reactions needed to build and maintain structure Catalyst Network 0 Replication can preserve and copy instructions for metabolism Information Transfer Origin of Life 39 o Abiotic synthesis of small organic molecules I o Replicated experimentally easy but NO oxygen 1 0 Amino acids amp nucleotides o Polymerize gt proteins and nucleic acids 0 RNA is both catalyst and information transfer molecule 0 Package into lipid bilayers protobionts o Vesicles can isolate selfcatalyzing network of macromolecules from surroundings 3Initial chemical diversity many different protobionts Replaced by more efficient biological sysems 39 0 Natural Selection Best evidence for early stages probably found on other planets or satellites 2 Fossil Types 39 o CompressionImpression organism finds itself trapped bw layers of sediment and compressed o Casts and Molds o Permineralized example petrified wood 0 Unaltered remains Fossil Formation 0 Body must be relatively intact 0 Not eaten or decomposed 0 Body must be covered by preserving material 0 Body usually must have hard parts 0 Preserving material must not be destroyed obvious 39 Fossilization is rare Fossil Record incomplete 0 Many types of organisms rarely fossilize o Fossils are usually incomplete Many habitats rarely form fossils 0 Best were sediments deposited Sediments must accumulate and solidify Rock must be exposed to surface but not first erode changed or melted o there are many useful fossils but we expect many gaps Geological Record Basics 0 The geological cycle 0 James Hutton and Uniformitarianism Father of modern geology 0 Plate tectonics 0 Geological Time Relative superposition and the role of fossils Absolute Mass Extinctions and Catastrophe s O O O Wednesday Lecture Biology 152 1282011 40400 PM I Relative Geological Dates 0 Principles of superposition 0 Newest layer on top oldest on bottom 0 RELATIVE DATING METHOD Absolute Geological Dates 0 Example half life dating bc each radioactive element decays at a constant rate 39 COPY SIMPLIFIED GEOLOGICAL TIMESCALE ON BB 0 On your own add major events in history of life on chart I o WILL PROBABLY BE QUESTIONS ON SOME TEST Uses of the Fossil Record 0 Evidence for Evolution 0 The mode and tempo of evolution 0 Mod is evolutionary change gradual or punctuated brief periods of rapid change long periods of stasis 0 Tempo What are the rates of ev change 39 MODE OF EVOLUTION o Gradualism Darwin 0 Only appears abrupt in fossils due to gaps o Punctuated Equilibrium Eldredge and Gould o Abrupt appearance is real 0 Long periods of little or no change 0 Rapid shifts assoc with speciation 0 Evidence Supports both modes 0 39 Rates of Evolution Tempo 0 Avg rates of change over long periods of time tend to be very slow 0 Over shorter intervals rates can be much higher but directions fluctuate so that net changes are smaller Units of Geological Time 0 Major divisions are marked by great changes in the fossils found in the strata 0 Now many are recognized as mass extinction events 0 Mass Extinctions late 20th Century realization that rare environmental catastrophes have had an imp role in the history of life a time interval with a widespread highly elevated rate of extinction D vs background extinctions that are constantly occurring n 5 to 7 mass extinctions n causes sometimes known sometimes not a each followed by faunaflora of diff character Origin of earth originof life question mark evolution of 02 evolution of eukaryotes evolution of multicellularity iPrecambrian Life Prokaryotes o Earliest Fossils 3500 ma 0 Looks like modern bacteria 0 May not be cells 0 Definite fossils 3000 ma 0 Many fossils from stromatolites 3Atmosphere Change 0 Evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis o Autotrophic cyanobacteria o 02 increase began 2700 Ma 0 Immense environmental change 0 Many anaerobes extinct 02 corrosive o Allowed evolution of complex organisms o Aerobic Respiration much more energy 0 Ozone layer reduced UV Origin of Eukaryotes 2100 mya 0 Main differences 0 Nucleus 0 Linear chromosomes 0 Membranebound organelles o Endosymbiosis bacteria eaten by eukaryote ancestor Multicellular Organisms o Oldest 1200 mya small algae Oldest multicellular animal fossil 640 mya soft flat seafloor creatures Important for eventual specialization Look at slide w stages Precambrian Climates Ice Ages trigger for evolution of multicellular LARGEST LAND MASS SOUTH POLE O O O O O O iThe Phanerozoic Eon since 542mya o Paleozoic Life 0 Marine animals difersify Cambrian Explosion o Colonization of land 0 Endpermian Mass extinction o Mesozoic Life 0 Dinos diversity 0 Flowering plants 0 EndCretaceous mass extinction o Cenozoic Life 0 Mammals diversify 0 Repeated ice ages 0 Humans evolve Paleozoic o Cambrian Period 542488mya o Cambrian Explosion great radiation Most phyla of animals appear Some can t assign to current phyla Evolution of hard shells skeletons Shellless relatives evolved earlier Many major clades first appear slide pic Annelid Chordates Arthropods Lost mnay echinoderms and trilobites o Ordovician 488444 0 Still have marine animals 0 Plants move to land mass extinction prop 2nd largest o Silurian Period 0 O O o Gnathostomes jawed verterbrates with paired fins some with bony plates 0 Plants vascular tissue 0 Landscape picture 30 centimeters in height some bunches of trees 0 Devonian Period 416 360 0 Vascular plants diversify Ferns club mosses Seed plants appear at end gymnosperms n NOW DON T DEPEND ON WATER FOR REPR 0 Animals move to land arthropods Insects spiders mites Mandibulates o Vertebrates Two subclasses n Rayfinned n Lobe finned Move to land amphibians n Lobes modified into limbs o Ends with mass extinction o Carboniferous 360299 Amphibians and insects diversify Swamp Forests 0 Sea level fluctuation due to glaciers down south time of ice ages 0 Eastern Kansas Cuesta Topography Limestone deep water Shale Shallower water 0 Permian 299251 0 Pangea formed 0 Diversification of reptiles 0 End Permian mass extinction possibly largest Causes complex a massive volcanic eruptions a formation of pangea O O o Cretaceous o Triassic o Jurassic 1282011 40400 PM 39Cenozoic 65 ma now 0 First Part global climate continued to warm 0 Then global cooling 0 Diverrgenence w hominins and ancestors of chimps 7Ma Current Mass Extinction I o 1001000x Background rate 0 20 birds have gone extinct 0 causes habitat loss introduced species directexploitataion o On track for another May be new pangea in future 39 264 and 265 less important I Phylogeny o Evolutionary History 0 Of a species 0 Of a group of related Species Systematics o Classifies orgs o Det s evolutionary relationships 0 Uses fossils molecular and genetic data Taxonomy 0 Goal is to prov standard names for orgs that every1 can use 0 Consistent rules applied 0 o CarolusLinnaeus Binomial Nomenclature Two part names Hierarchical Classification a First part GENUS First letter Capitalized a Second Specific EPITHET n Italicized o Taxon taxonomic unit at any level of hierarchy Phylogenetic Trees 0 Depict evolutionary relationships 0 Pictoral rep of an evolutionary hypothesis How to read a Tree Polytomy 3 lineages descend from single ancestor 2 is a branch point node In same branch sister taxa Sometimes length of branch number of differences Cladistics 0 Group of species that includes and ancestral speies and all of its descendents 0 Groups of common descent 0 Possible Groupings o Monophletic o Paraphyletic o Polyphyletic Following Slides 1282011 40400 PM I Figure 522 0 Yellow Mitochondrion 0 Green Chloroplast Chapter 27 REALLY NEED TO READ HE SKIPS OVER A LOT I Bacteria and Archea 0 Fill in the blank 10x 0 Prokaryote 0 Name means before nucleus 0 Characterized by what they lack No nucleus No organelles orgs that aren t eukaryotes 0 better to call them BACTERIA and ARCHAEA Morphology Ce Shapes o Spherical Cocci o RodShaped Baccili o Helical Coil Spiral 0 Bacteria o Peptidoglycan 0 Two main types of cell walls Gram Positive n Why Purple Traps stain inside ce because so thick Gram Negative n Why not purple Is much thinner washes stain I out CLICKER QUESTION IF CELL WALLS OF ARCHAEA ARE TESTED WITH GRAM STAIN WOULD PROBABLY NOT STAIN 0 Slide 0 Attachment Two different structures a Capsules n Fimbriae or attachment pili Bacili With Fibriae Attachment Pili 0 Movement Used for movement flagella I Positive chemotaxis towards chemical stimulus j Negative chemotaxis going opposite from something i noxious Bacterial Flagellum Sex Among Bacteria 0 Can exchange genetic material by Transformation Transduction I Conjugation Metabolic Diversity i o 1 Photoautotrophs I o 2 Chemoautotrophs 0 Which organisms BACTERIA AND ARCHAEA ONLY 0 3 Heterotrophs 0 Which Bact and archaea only 0 4 Chemoheterotrophs 0 Which Many prokaryotes ad other organisms 0 STUDY AND UNDERSTAND TABLE 2721