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FRIT-F313 Chapter 5 Notes

by: Kathryn Brinser

FRIT-F313 Chapter 5 Notes FRIT-F313

Marketplace > Indiana University > French > FRIT-F313 > FRIT F313 Chapter 5 Notes
Kathryn Brinser
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Covers chapter 5 in Contrastes French Grammar book: Adjectives and Demonstrative Pronouns (celui/celle, etc.)
Advanced French Grammar
Aiko Okamoto-Macphail
Class Notes
frit-f313, frit f313, french, french grammar, advanced french grammar, demonstrative adjectives, demonstrative pronouns
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kathryn Brinser on Monday February 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to FRIT-F313 at Indiana University taught by Aiko Okamoto-Macphail in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Advanced French Grammar in French at Indiana University.


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Date Created: 02/22/16
Notes de Chapitre 5- Adjectives and Demonstrative Pronouns 9-19-15  Variable Demonstratives o Forms  Demonstrative adjectives: Masculine Feminine M. and F. Plural Simple ce/cet cette ces Compound ce/cet …-ci/la cette …-ci/la ces …-ci/la  Demonstrative pronouns: Masculine Feminine M. Plural F. Plural Simple celui celle ceux celles Compound celui-ci/la celle-ci/la ceux-ci/la celles-ci/la  Adj and pronouns all agree in gender and number with word they modify/replace  Ex. Ce jeune homme est étudiant.  Ex. Cet après-midi, je vais à la gym.  Ex. Ces tableaux sont magnifiques.  Ex. J’ai acheté un nouveau stylo pour remplacer celui que j’ai perdu. I bought a new pen to replace the one I lost.  Ex. Cette couleur-ci me plaît plus que celle-là. I like this color better than the other one. o Remarks  Ce vs. Cet (this/that)  Cet used instead of ce before masculine singular starting with vowel or silent h  Ex. Ce Cet ce monsieur cet auteur ce jeune homme cet homme ce vieil hôtel cet hôtel ce grand hôpital cet hôpital ce nouvel ordinateur cet ordinateur  Ces (these/those)  Used for masculine and feminine plurals (NOT cettes)  Ex. Ces hommes et ces femmes sont des réfugiés. o Functions of simple variable demonstratives  Ce/cet, cette, ces  Refer to something known or visible  Ex. Ce livre est passionant. This/that book is fascinating.  Ex. As-tu déjà vu cette exposition ?  Ex. Ces gens ont été fantastiques. These/those people were [have been] fantastic.  Celui, celle, ceux, celles (the one(s), people that/whom/with…)  Never used alone; always followed by preposition, relative pronoun (qui, que, dont, où, etc.), or present or past participle  Ex. Tu préfères les boucles d’oreille en or ou celles en argent ? Do you prefer the gold earrings or the silver ones?  Ex. Ceux qui arriveront en retard devront attendre leur tour. People/Those who come late will have to wait their turn.  Ex. J’ai trouvé plusieurs brochures à ce sujet ; celle écrite en français est excellente. I found a number of brochures on this topic; the one written in French is excellent.  “The blue one…” vs. “The cashmere one/the one that…”  In English, when the ones is preceded by an adj, like the blue one, use definite article and demonstrative pronoun o Ex. Si tu as besoin d’un pull, je peux te prêter le bleu ou le noir. If you need a sweater, I can lend you either the blue [one] or the black [one]. o Ex. Quelle valise prends-tu ? La petite ou l’autre ? Which suitcase are you taking? The small one or the other one?  In all other cases, when the ones relates to noun, like the cotton one; relative pronoun, like the one who/that; or preposition, like the one with; results in celui, celle, ceux, or celles o Ex. Quel pull veux-tu ? Celui en cachemire ? Which sweater do you want? The cashmere one? o Ex. Quelle valise prends-tu ? Celle à roulettes ou celle qui est au grenier ? Which suitcase are you taking? The one with wheels or the one that’s in the attic?  Possessive phrases  Used before de + noun to show belonging expressed by English “‘s”  Ex. Ma mère vit à New York mais celle de John habite Seattle. My mother lives in New York City but John’s lives in Seattle.  Ex. Ce chien est gentil mais celui de mon oncle aboie tout le temps. This dog is nice but my uncle’s barks all the time. o Functions of compound variable demonstratives  Adjs and pronouns ending in –ci/-la  Time/spatial  Ex. Ce livre-ci est à moi, mais l’autre appartient à Delphine. This book [right here] is mine, but the other one belongs to Delphine.  Ex. Il y a beaucoup de grippes ces jours-ci. There is a lot of flu going around these days.  Ex. À cette époque-là, on voyageait beaucoup moins. Back then OR In those days, people traveled much less.  Opposition between 2 things/people in one sentence  Ex. Je ne peux pas mettre ce pull-ci ; il est troué ! Passe-moi plutôt celui-là. I can’t wear this sweater; it has a hole in it! Pass me that one instead.  Pejorative sense of celui-là/celle-là, etc.  Ex. Oh ! Celle-là, elle se plaint sans cesse ! Oh, that one! She’s always complaining!  This vs. That: differences between French and English  Opposition between –ci (this) and –là (that) less precise in French  Forms with –ci less frequent in reality  When opposition implicit/when no real opposition, tend to use –là forms  Ex. (explicit opposition) Tu préfères ce pantalon-ci ou celui-là ?  Ex. (implicit) Vous avez besoin d’une agrafeuse ? Tenez, prenez celle-là. Do you need a stapler? Here, take this one.  Invariable Demonstratives o All neutral pronouns: ce/c’, ceci, cela, or ça  Ceci opposed to cela/ça in theory, but is far less common; when used, it announces something that follows directly after (ie. Je te dis ceci: fais attention… = I’ll tell you this: be careful…); cela refers to what has just been said (ie. Cela dit, je pense que… = That said, I think [that]…) o C’est vs. Il est (nationality and profession)  C’est un Français vs. Il est français  C’est un(e) + Nationality  Il/Elle est + nationality  C’est un architecte vs. Il est architecte  Il/Elle est + profession o Ex. Paul, que fait-il dans la vie ? Il est architecte.  C’est + le/la/un/mon, etc. + noun o Ex. Qui est-ce ? C’est un/notre architecte. o Ce/c’ vs. Cela/ça (subjects)  Ce/c’ can be singular or plural  Cela/ça always singular  Exclusive uses of ce/c’  Only demonstrative pronoun subject possible before est, était/étaient, sont, and ne sont pas, given that these verbs not preceded by object pronoun  Ex. C’est tout ?  Ex. C’était/C’étaient des tourists américains.  Ex. Ce ne sont pas mes cousins ; ce sont mes frères.  Ex. Ça m’est arrivé plusieurs fois. It happened to me many times.  Also used in highlighting relative pronoun (ie. c’est moi qui…/c’est là que…, etc.) when emphasizing something; idiomatic, very common o Ex. C’est lui qui me l’a dit. o Ex. C’est là que/où j’habitais. That’s where I used to live.  Ce OR cela/ça  Can use either before (ne) sera/serait (pas)  Remember only use ce before sont (affirmative or not)  Ex. Ce n’est pas OR Cela/Ça n’est pas facile à comprendre.  Ex. Ce ne sont pas des roses ; ce sont des œillets. These are not roses; these are carnations.  Ex. Ce sera OR Cela/Ça sera vite fait. It won’t take long.  Ex. C’était formidable ! It was great!  Also have choice when être preceded by devoir or pouvoir o Ex. Se elle vous a dit cela, ça OR ce doit être vrai. If she said this/that to you, then it must be true. o Ex. Demande à Marc ce qu’il en pense; ça OR ce peut être utile d’avoir son avis sur la question. Ask Marc what he thinks; it might be useful to have his opinion about it.  Exclusive uses of cela/ça  Only pronoun subject possible in all other cases: o When simple form of être preceded by pronouns like me, te, se, lui, nous, vous, leur  Ex. Cela/Ça s’est passé lundi. It happened [on] Monday.  Ex. C’est arrivé plusieurs fois. It happened a number of times. o After tout + être  Ex. Tout cela/ça est fascinant. All this is fascinating. o Before all other verbs than être (including before auxiliary avoir)  Ex. Alors les enfants, ça va ?  Ex. Cela m’étonne. That surprises me. C’est étonnant. o Summary: ce/c’ vs. cela/ça subjects Ce/C' Cela/Ca C’est intéressant ? Oui, cela/ça m’amuse. (être present) (verb other than être) C’était intéressant. Cela/Ça aurait été intéressant. (être imparfait) (être conjugated with aux. avoir) C’est arrive hier. Cela/Ça leur est arrive hier. (auxiliary être present) (pronoun leur before est)  Ex. Ce OR Ça serait génial ! être conditional It would be great!  Ex. Ce OR Ça sera dur, mais on s’y fera. être futur It’ll be hard, but we’ll get used to it.  Ex. Ce OR Ça n’est pas aussi facile que ça ! être present negative It’s not all that easy! o Other functions of ce/c’ and cela/ça  Ce qui, ce que, ce dont…  Ce is necessary before relative pronouns qui/que/dont when antecedent not specified/specific  Ex. Explique-moi ce qui s’est passé. Explain to me what happened.  Ex. Dis-moi ce que tu me reproches ! Tell me what you have against me!  Ex. Ce n’est pas du tout ce dont j’ai besoin. That’s not at all what I need.  Tout ce qui…, voici ce que…, voilà ce dont…  Ce also necessary between tout/voici/voilà and qui/que/dont  Ex. Voilà ce qui est arrivé… Here’s what happened…  Ex. Nous avons tout ce qu’il nous faut. We have everything we need.  Ex. C’est tout ce don’t je me souviens. That’s all I remember.  "What annoys me…" or "…, which annoys me”  Ce also necessary before relative pronouns when relative preposition highlights (at beginning of phrase) o Ex. Ce qui m’agace, c’est qu’elle est/soit toujours en retard. What annoys me is the fact that she’s always late.  Also when antecedent of ce is an idea/complete phrase o Ex. Elle est toujours en retard, ce qui m’agace. She’s always late, which annoys me.  Ce qui/que… (which/what) vs. Celui qui/que… (the one(s) that, people/those who…, etc.) Ce qui/Ce que Celui qui/Celle que Ce qui complique les choses en ce moment, c'est le Celui qui complique les choses mauvais temps. en ce moment, c'est toi. (What's making things (The one who is making things complicated right now is the complicated right now is you.) bad weather.) Ce que j'admire le plus chez Celle que j'admire le plus dans ma famille, c'est ma grand- Cezanne, se sont ses paysages. mere. (What I admire most in (The one I admire most in my Cezanne are his landscapes.) family is my grandmother.)  Cela/ça regarding an attribute  Ex. Regarde-moi ça ! C’est joli, tu ne trouves pas ? Look at that! It’s pretty, don’t you think? o –moi only idiomatic; expresses enthusiasm  Ex. Oui, c’est ça. o In common speaking, used to be sarcastic (ie. Yeah, sure… or Yeah, whatever…)  « J’aime ça… » vs. « Je l’aime… »  When verb like aimer, adorer, detester, trouver, etc. have general/abstract thing as DO, replace with ça instead of DO pronoun o Ex. Vous aimez le camembert ? Non, je déteste ça.  If DO is person or specific thing, use DO pronoun le, la, l’, or les o Ex. Vous aimez ce camembert ? Oui, je le trouve délicieux. o Idiomatic expressions with ça  Ça alors ! (admiration or indignation My goodness!, You’re kidding!  Ça fair grossir. It’s fattening.  Ça ne me dit rien. I don’t feel like it.  Ça ne fait rien. It doesn’t matter.  Ça ne te/vous regarde pas ! It’s none of your business.  Ça ne va pas fort. I am/you are, etc. under the weather.  Ça par exemple ! Well, I never! My word!  Ça suffit ! Enough already!  Ça te/vous va bien. It looks good on you., It suits you.  Ça va ? → Comme ci, comme ça ! How’s it going ? → So-so…  Oh oh ! Ça va chauffer/barder ! (familiar) Uh oh! Things are going to get nasty!  Ça y est ! Ok! That’s it!, Done!  Mais à part ça…? And apart from that… ?  Qu’est-ce que c’est [que] ça ? What [in the world] is this?!  Regarde-moi ça ! Take a look at this!  …sans ça (= sinon) …otherwise


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