Chapter 7: Motivation Concepts
Chapter 7: Motivation Concepts MGMT 3720
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alora Lornklang on Monday February 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MGMT 3720 at University of North Texas taught by Dr. James D. Powell in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see Organizational Behavior in Business at University of North Texas.
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Date Created: 02/22/16
MGMT 3720 Organizational Behavior Chapter Review Chapter 7: Motivation Concepts 1. Describe the three key elements of motivation. a. Motivation i. The processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal. b. Intensity describes how hard a person tries c. Direction: the orientation that benefits the organization d. Persistence: a measure of how long that person tries 2. Evaluate the applicability of early theories of motivation. a. Hierarchy of Needs Theory: i. Physiological 1. Hunger, thirst, shelter, sex, other bodily needs ii. Safety 1. Security and protection from physical and emotional harm iii. Social 1. Affection, belongingness, acceptance, and friendship iv. Esteem 1. Internal factors such as selfrespect, autonomy, and achievement, and external factors such as status, recognition, and attention. v. Selfactualization 1. Drive to become what we are capable of becoming; includes growth, achieving our potential, and self fulfillment vi. Lowerorder needs 1. Needs that are satisfied externally, such as physiological and safety needs. vii. Higherorder needs: 1. Needs that are satisfied internally, such as social, esteem, and selfactualization needs. b. Theory X and Theory Y i. Theory X: 1. The assumption that employees dislike work, are lazy, dislike responsibility, and must be coerced to perform ii. Theory Y: 1. The assumption that employees like work, are creative, seek responsibility, and can exercise selfdirection. c. TwoFactor Theory: i. A theory that relates intrinsic factors to job satisfaction and associates extrinsic factors with dissatisfaction. Also called motivationhygiene theory. ii. Hygiene Factors: 1. Factors—such as company policy and administration, supervision, and salary—that, when adequate in a job, placate workers. When these factors are adequate, people will not be dissatisfied. iii. The twofactor theory has not been well supported in the literature, and it has many detractors. Criticisms include the following: 1. Limited because it relies on selfreports 2. Reliability of methodology is questioned 3. No overall measure of satisfaction was utilized. 4. Herzberg assumed a relationship between satisfaction and productivity, but the research methodology he used looked only at satisfaction, not at productivity. d. McClellands Theory of Needs i. A theory that states achievement, power, and affiliation are three important needs that help explain motivation. ii. It looks at three needs: 1. Need for achievement (nAch) is the drive to excel, to achieve in relationship to a set of standards. 2. Need for power (nPow) is the need to make others behave in any way they would not have otherwise. 3. Need for affiliation (nAff) is the desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships. 3. Apply the predictions of selfdetermination theory to intrinsic and extrinsic rewards. a. Selfdetermination theory: i. A theory of motivation that is concerned with the beneficial effects of intrinsic motivation and the harmful effects of extrinsic motivation. b. Cognitive evaluation theory: i. A version of selfdetermination theory, which holds that allocating extrinsic rewards for behavior that had been previously intrinsically rewarding, tends to decrease the overall level of motivation if the rewards are seen as controlling. c. Selfconcordance i. The degree to which people’s reasons for pursuing goals are consistent with their interests and core values d. When extrinsic rewards are used as payoffs for performance, employees feel that they are doing a good job. e. Managers should provide intrinsic rewards as well. They need to make the work interesting, provide recognition, and support employee growth and development. i. Employees who feel that what they do is within their control and a result of free choice are likely to be more motivated by their work and committed to their employers 4. Identify the implications of employee job engagement for management a. Job engagement i. The investment of an employee’s physical, cognitive, and emotional energies into job performance. 5. Describe goalsetting theory, selfefficacy theory, and reinforcement theory. a. Goalsetting theory i. A theory that says that specific and difficult goals, with feedback, lead to higher performance ii. Specific goals increase performance iii. Difficult goals, when accepted, result in higher performance than easy to do goals iv. Goal setting theory assumes an individual is committed to the goal and determined not to lower or abandon it. v. The individual believes he or she can achieve the goal and wants to achieve it. vi. Management by objectives (MBO) 1. A program that encompasses specific goals, participatively set, for an explicit time period, with feedback on goal progress. 2. Four ingredients common to MBO programs are goal specificity, participation in decisionmaking, an explicit time period, and performance feedback. b. SelfEfficacy Theory i. An individual’s belief that he or she is capable of performing a task. ii. The researchers who developed selfefficacy theory, Albert Bandura, proposes four ways selfefficacy can be increased: 1. Enactive mastery—gaining experience with the task/job 2. Vicarious modeling—becoming more confident because you see someone else doing the task 3. Verbal persuasion—becoming more confident because someone convinces you that you have the skills necessary to be successful 4. Arousal—leads to an energized state, so the person is psyched up and performs better. iii. Pygmalion effect or Galatea effect 1. A form of selffulfilling prophecy in which believing something can make it true c. Reinforcement Theory i. A theory that says that behavior is a function of its consequences 1. Takes a behavioral view, arguing that reinforcement conditions behavior. 2. Behavior is environmentally caused 3. Goalsetting is a cognitive approach: an individual’s purposes direct his or her action. ii. Operant conditioning theory, probably the most relevant component of reinforcement theory for management, argues that people learn to behave to get something they want or to avoid something they don’t want. iii. Behaviorism 1. A theory that argues that behavior follows stimuli in a relatively unthinking manner. 6. Demonstrate how organizational justice is a refinement of equity theory a. Equity theory i. A theory that says that individuals compare their job inputs and outcomes with those of others and then respond to eliminate any inequities. b. Based on equity theory, employees who perceive inequity will make one of six choices: i. Change inputs ii. Change outcomes iii. Distort perceptions of self iv. Distort perceptions of others v. Choose a different referent vi. Leave the field c. Organizational justice i. An overall perception of what is fair in the workplace, composed of distributive, procedural, informational, and interpersonal justice. ii. Distributive justice 1. Perceived fairness of the amount and allocation of rewards among individuals iii. Procedural justice 1. The perceived fairness of the process used to determine the distribution of rewards iv. Interpersonal justice 1. The degree to which employees are treated with dignity and respect v. Informational justice 1. The degree to which employees are provided truthful explanations for decisions. 7. Apply the key tenets of expectancy theory to motivating employees a. Expectancy theory i. A theory that says that the strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of an expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual. b. The theory focuses on three relationships i. Effortperformance relationship 1. The probability perceived by the individual that exerting a given amount of effort will lead to performance. ii. Performancereward relationship. 1. The degree to which the individual believes performing at a particular level will lead to the attainment of a desired outcome iii. Rewardspersonal goals relationship 1. The degree to which organizational rewards satisfy an individual’s personal goals or needs and the attractiveness of those potential rewards for the individual. c. Expectancy Theory: Individual effort individual performance organizational rewards personal goals d. Platinum rule: Treat others the way THEY want to be treated. 8. Compare contemporary theories of motivation a. Expectancy theory predicts employees will exert a high level of effort if they perceive a strong relationship between effort and performance, performance and rewards, and rewards and satisfaction of personal goals. b. The performancereward relationship will be strong if the individual perceives that performance is rewarded. c. If cognitive evaluation theory were fully valid in the actual workplace, we would predict here that basing rewards on performance should decrease the individual’s intrinsic motivation d. Reinforcement theory enters the model by recognizing that the organization’s rewards reinforce the individual’s performance.
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