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FRIT-F313 Chapter 7 Notes

by: Kathryn Brinser

FRIT-F313 Chapter 7 Notes FRIT-F313

Marketplace > Indiana University > French > FRIT-F313 > FRIT F313 Chapter 7 Notes
Kathryn Brinser
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About this Document

Covers chapter 7 of Contrastes French Grammar book: Ownership/Possession
Advanced French Grammar
Aiko Okamoto-Macphail
Class Notes
frit-f313, frit f313, french, french grammar, advanced french grammar, possession, ownership, possessive adjectives, possessive pronouns
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kathryn Brinser on Monday February 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to FRIT-F313 at Indiana University taught by Aiko Okamoto-Macphail in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Advanced French Grammar in French at Indiana University.


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Date Created: 02/22/16
Notes de Chapitre 7: Ownership 9-21-15  Forms of possessive adj/pronouns Masculine Singular Feminine Singular Masculine Plural Feminine Plural adj → pronoun adj → pronoun adj → pronoun adj → pronoun mon → le mien ma → la mienne mes → les miens mes → les miennes ton → le tien ta → la tienne tes → les tiens tes → les tiennes son → le sien sa → la sienna ses → les siens ses → les siennes notre → le nôtre notre → la nôtre nos → les nôtres nos → les nôtres votre → le vôtre votre → la vôtre vos → les vôtres vos → les vôtres leur → le leur leur → la leur leurs → les leurs leurs → les leurs  Remarks on poss. adj/pronouns o ô with circonflex  First and second-person plural (nous/vous), poss. pronouns take ô, adj do not  Ex. Notre chien → le nôtre Vos enfants → les vôtres o Contractions with à and de  Ex. J’ai envoyé une invitation à tes parents et aux miens. I sent an invitation to your parents and [to] mine.  Ex. Je ne suis pas ici pour parler de leur problème mais du tien. I’m not here to talk about their problem but about yours. o Mon, ton, son in place of ma, ta, sa  Before feminine singular starting with vowel/silent h, use masculine adj  Ex. Regarde cette photo: c’est ma sœur et mon amie Nadine.  Ex. Ton histoire m’a bien fait rire. Your story gave me a good laugh. o His vs. Her/hers  French does not express gender of possessor  Context determines gender of adj/pronouns  Ex. C’est sa fille. → C’est la sienne. It’s his/her daughter.  Ex. C’est son fils. → C’est le sien.  Ex. Ce sont ses parents. → Ce sont les siens. o His/her/hers vs. Their/theirs  Son, sa, ses indicate one possessor; leur, leurs indicate several  Ex. C’est le chien de Philippe. → C’est son chien. → C’est le sien. C’est le chien de Philippe et Cathy. → C’est leur chien. → C’est le leur.  Ex. C’est la mère d’Émilie. → C’est sa mère. → C’est la sienne. C’est la mère d’Émilie et Pierre. → C’est leur mère. → C’est la leur.  Ex. Ce sont les parents de Nicole. → Ce sont ses parents. → Ce sont les siens. Ce sont les parents de Nicole et Lucie. → Ce sont leurs parents. → Ce sont les leurs. o Leur vs. Leurs: differences between French/English  When pronouns of same gender or objects include things that cannot be pluralized (ie. vie, esprit, mémoire, etc.), use leur  Neither have gender  Do not confuse leur (poss. adj) and leur (IO pronoun)  Ex. De nos jours, les étudiants ont tous une télévision dans leur chambre. (NOT leurs because each student has a single room) Nowadays, all students have televisions in their rooms.  Ex. Les gens mènent leur vie comme ils veulent. (NOT leurs because each has only 1 life) People live/lead their lives as they wish.  Ex. Les dignitaires étaient accompagnés de leurs épouses. (each has different spouse) The dignitaries were accompanied by their spouses.  Appartenir à and être à o Both mean to belong to o Appartenir à + IO pronoun  Ex. Ces livres lui appartiennent.  Ex. Cette maison nous appartient autrefois (once; used to). o Être à + DP  Ex. Ce DVD est à moi, pas à eux.  Ex. Est-ce que ce parapluie est à lui par hasard ?  Génitif (poss.) in English vs. French o Noun + de + noun OR celui/celle, ceux/celles + de + noun o Ex. Ce n’est pas mon livre, c’est celui de Tom. o Ex. La maison de mon oncle est plus petite que celle de mes parents. o Ex. Ce sont les amis de Karen ou ceux de Mélanie ?  Ownership and body parts: use of definite articles o To express in broad sense, including mind, memory, physiology, clothes (in some cases), etc., use definite article in simple verification or description o Evident possessor  Ex. Elle a mal au dos. Her back hers.  Ex. J’ai froid aux mains.  Ex. Il marchait les mains dans les poches (pockets). o Ownership shown by pronominal verb  Ex. Elle s’est cassé la jambe en skiant. She broke her leg while skiing.  Ex. Elle s’est fait couper les cheveux. She had her hair cut. o Ownership shown by IO pronoun  Ex. Elle lui a serré la main. She shook his/her hand  Ex. Le médicin lui a pansé le doigt. The doctor bandanged his/her finger. o « Elle a les yeux verts… » vs. « Elle a de beaux yeux verts… »  When avoir compliments body part (or clothes), use definite article if adj (bleu, vert, etc.) describes simple fact  Ex. Il a les yeux marron.  Ex. Elle a les cheveux roux (red).  Ex. Il avait la chemise toute déchirée. His shirt was all torn up.  If body part/clothing are subject of description and qualified by adj of appreciation (ie. petit, mignon, grand, beau, laid, magnifique, terne, bleu clair, etc.), use indefinite article  Recall: in plural, des → de before adj  Ex. Elle a de beaux yeux verts.  Ex. Il a de grands yeux marron. He has great big brown eyes.  Ex. Elle a des cheveux splendides.  Ex. Il avait une belle chemise en soie (silk). o Body parts in expressions and idioms avoir froid/chaud aux pieds to have warm/cold feet avoir le cœur sur la main to be very generous avoir les jambes en coton to feel week in the knees/legs avoir les yeux bleus/verts/noisette to have blue/green/hazel eyes avoir mal à la tête/au dos/à la gorge, etc. to have a headache/backache/sore throat, etc. baisser les bras to give up casser les pieds à qqn (familiar) to be a bore, to be a pain in the neck coûter les yeux de la tête to cost a small fortune élever la voix to raise one’s voice faire de l’œil à qqn (familiar) to make eyes at sb faire la tête to sulk faire les gros yeux à qqn to look at sb closely faire les yeux doux à qqn to make goo-goo eyes/sheep’s eyes at sb fermer les yeux sur qqch to be tolerant about sth fermer/ouvrir/baisser/lever les yeux to close/open/lower/raise one’s eyes froncer les sourcils to frown hausser les épaules to shrug one’s shoulders lever les bras au ciel to throw up one’s hands (in astonishment, disbelief, or despair) ne pas fermer l’œil de la nuit to not sleep a wink ouvrir de grands yeux to be very surprised ouvrir l’œil to be very vigilant about sth regarder qqn dans les yeux to look sb in the eye se lever du pied gauche to get up on the wrong side of the bed tendre l’oreille to listen carefully tourner la tête à qqn to turn someone’s head  Ownership and body parts: use of poss. adj o Verbs other than avoir- poss. adj before body part, but in specific cases: o Body part is subject of verb  Ex. Ma jambe me fait mal. J’ai mal à la jambe.  Ex. Son dos lui fait mal. Il a mal au dos.  Ex. Ses cheveux sont blonds. Il/Elle a les cheveux blonds. o Body part specified by specific context or adj of appreciation  Ex. Elle leva ses beaux yeux gris. Elle leva les yeux et le regarda.  Ex. Le petit garçon enfonça ses Lucas se promenait les mains dans petites mains froides dans les poches. ses poches. o Action is not habitual or figurative  Ex. Elle posa sa tête sur la table et s’endormit. (normally, one does not met sa tête sur une table pour dormir) She put her head down on the table and fell asleep.  Ex. Il lui a demandé sa main. He asker her to marry him.  Summary: ownership and body parts o Avoir + part(s) Constatation → Def. Article Description/Appreciation → Indef. Article Elle a les yeux bleus. Elle a des yeux très bleus. Elle a les cheveux blonds. Elle a de beaux cheveux blonds. o Avoir mal vs. faire mal + part(s) Avoir mal à → Def. Article Faire mal → Poss. Adjective J’ai mal au genou. Mon genou me fait mal. Tu as mal à la gorge ? Ta gorge te fait mal ? o Other verbs + part(s) Constatation → Def. Article Description/Appreciation → Poss. Adjective Elle ouvrit les yeux. Elle ouvrit ses grands yeux tristes. Elle s’est lave les cheveux. Elle laissa ses longs cheveux sécher (to dry) au soleil.


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