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FRIT-F313 Chapter 8 Notes

by: Kathryn Brinser

FRIT-F313 Chapter 8 Notes FRIT-F313

Marketplace > Indiana University > French > FRIT-F313 > FRIT F313 Chapter 8 Notes
Kathryn Brinser
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About this Document

Covers chapter 8 in Contrastes French Grammar book: Negation (ie. ne pas, ne que, ne personne, ne rien, etc.)
Advanced French Grammar
Aiko Okamoto-Macphail
Class Notes
frit-f313, frit f313, french, french grammar, advanced french grammar, negation
25 ?




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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kathryn Brinser on Monday February 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to FRIT-F313 at Indiana University taught by Aiko Okamoto-Macphail in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Advanced French Grammar in French at Indiana University.


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Date Created: 02/22/16
Notes de Chapitre 8- Negation 10-28-15  Negation of Verbs o Simple and compound tenses  Ne immediately follows subject, second word (pas, plus, jamais, rien, guère, etc.) comes after conjugated verb/auxiliary  All pronouns come right after ne  When on is subject of negative verb that starts with vowel, do not have to put n’ before verb  Ex. On n’a pas le temps. OR On a pas le temps.  Familiar oral language often omits ne ; not technically correct o Imperative and questions by inversion with pronoun subject  Ne goes at beginning of phrase (before pronoun objects); second part comes right after verb or after pronoun subject  Ex. Ne faites pas trop de bruit ; je travaille. Don’t make too much noise; I’m working.  Ex. N’est-elle pas en Chine en ce moment?  If subject of question is name, ne goes after name  Ex. Paul ne vous en a-t-il pas déjà parlé ? Didn’t Paul already talk to you about it?  Ex. Leur fille n’est-elle pas en Chine en ce moment ? Isn’t their daughter in China right now? o Infinitives  In inf. present, ne…pas, etc. always precedes verb  In inf. passé and passive, can go before inf. auxiliary or around it  Ex. Present Passé Active Je préfère ne pas prendre Elle est contrariée (annoyed) de ne un café le soir. (at night) jamais avoir retrouvé OR de n’avoir jamais avoir retrouvé son livre. Passive Il a peur de ne pas être Il est furieux de ne pas avoir été accepté OR de n’être pas accepté OR de n’avoir pas été accepté accepté à cette université. à cette université.  Preposition sans  Never use ne…pas before infinitive preceded by sans  Ex. Elle est partie sans dire au revoir.  Ex. Il a pu travailler toute la matinée sans être dérangé. He was able to work all morning without being disturbed.  Negation of Articles o In absolute negation, definites do not change; indefinites and partitives become pas de/d’ or plus de/d’  Ex. Affirmative Negative Definite Articles J’ai le temps. Je n’ai pas le temps. I have time. I don’t have time. Il aime la vanille. Il n’aime pas la vanille. He likes vanilla. He doesn’t like vanilla. Il aime les enfants. Il n’aime pas les enfants. He likes kids. He doesn’t like kids. Indefinite Articles Ils avaient un bateau. Ils n’ont plus de bateau. They had a boat. They don’t have a boat anymore. Il a des amis. Il n’a pas d’amis. He has friends. He doesn’t have any friends. Partitive Articles Il reste du pain. Il ne reste plus de pain. There’s [some] bread There’s no bread left. left. Ils ont de la patience. Ils n’ont pas de patience. They have patience. They don’t have any patience. Elle veut des enfants. Elle ne veut pas d’enfants. She wants children. She doesn’t want any children. o When un/une signifies un seul/une seule, does not change  Ex. Il n’a pas dit un mot. o Nature of articles du, de la, de l’, des  Recall: important to distinguish between articles starting with d (ie. du, de la, de l’, des) and definite articles combined or contracted with de  Ex. Elle a des enfants. → Elle n’a pas d’enfants. She has children. → She has no children/She doesn’t have [any] children. o des = indefinite or partitive → pas de/d’  Ex. Elle s’occupait des enfants de sa voisine. → Elle ne s’occupe plus des enfants de sa voisine. She used to take care of her neighbor’s children. → She no longer takes care of her neighbor’s children. o des = de + les → pas des  Partial Negation o Opposing one thing with another o Articles do not change  Ex. Ce n’est pas de l’eau, c’est du vin.  Ex. Je veux du homard, pas de la truite. o Second term of opposition can stay implicit  Ex. Je ne voudrais pas dire une sottise. I wouldn’t like to say something silly [ie. I would like to say something, but something intelligent].  Ex. N’achetez pas des actions, ce n’est pas le moment ! Don’t buy stocks; this isn’t the time [ie. Buy bonds, or something else]!  Vocabulary Study o Pronouns/adverbs and their contraries  Toujours and encore not synonyms; encore more neutral, toujours expresses more surprise, irritation, or judgment déjà Elle est déjà rentrée. → Elle n’est pas encore rentrée. She’s home already. → She isn’t home yet. J’avais déjà vu ce film. → Je n’avais jamais vu ce film. I had already seen that movie. → I had never seen that movie. devant (spatial Il s’est assis devant. → Il s’est assis derrière. meaning) He sat in front. → He sat in the rear/back. avant (temporal Nous sommes arrivé(e)s avant vous. → Nous sommes arrivé(e)s après meaning) vous. We came before you. → We came after you. encore/toujours Il dort encore OR toujours. → Il ne dort plus. He’s still asleep/sleeping. → He’s no longer asleep/sleeping. toujours Elle est toujours contente ! → Elle n’est jamais contente ! She’s always happy! → She’s never happy! Ils font toujours du ski ? → Non, ils ne font plus de ski. Are they still skiing? → No, they are no longer skiing. Elle se lève toujours à 6h du matin. → Elle ne se lève pas toujours à 6h du matin; parfois, elle se lève à 7h. She always gets up at 6 a.m. → She doesn’t always get up at 6 a.m.; sometimes she gets up at 7 a.m. quelquefois/ Ils se voient quelquefois OR parfois. → Il se voient rarement. OR Ils ne parfois se voient jamais. They see each other sometimes. → They rarely/never see each other. quelqu’un Je vois quelqu’un. → Je ne vois personne. I see someone. → I don’t see anyone. C’est quelqu’un d’intéressant. → Ce n’est personne d’intéressant. It’s someone interesting. → It isn’t anyone interesting. Quelqu’un va venir vous aider. → Personne n’est venu m’aider. Someone will be there to help you. → No one came to help me. quelques-un(e)(s)/ Quelques-uns OR Certains d’entre eux ont été blessés. → Aucun d’entre certains eux n’a été blessé. Some of them were wounded. → None of them was [singular] wounded. quelque chose J’ai entendu quelque chose. → Je n’ai rien entendu. I heard something. → I didn’t hear anything. tout Tout les intéresse. → Rien ne les intéresse. Everything interests them. → Nothing interests them. quelque part Il est allé quelque part. → Il n’est allé nulle part. He went somewhere. → He didn’t go anywhere. tout le monde, Tout le monde mentionnait constamment leur nom. → Personne n’a constamment jamais plus OR n’a jamais mentionné leur nom. Everyone constantly mentioned their name. → No one ever mentioned their name again. o Negative idiomatic phrases non plus Vous n’aimez pas les huîtres ? Moi non plus. You don’t like oysters? I don’t either/Nor do I. et non/[non] pas C’est du champagne et non OR champagne, [non] pas du cidre. It’s champagne, not cider. toujours pas Le train est arrivé ? → Non, [il n’est] toujours pas [arrivé]. Has the train arrived? → No, it still hasn’t come. jamais de la vie ! Tu referais cette expérience ? → Jamais de la vie ! Would you do this again? → Not on your life! n’avoir qu’à + inf. Si tu es pressé(e), tu n’as qu’à prendre un taxi ! If you’re in a hurry, why don’t you take OR just take a taxi! pas grand-chose Qu’est-ce que tu as fait pour Noël ? Oh, pas grand-chose. What did you do for Christmas? Oh, nothing much/not that much. pas tellement Vous aimez les moules ? → Non, pas tellement. Do you like mussels? → No, not that much. pas que je sache Elle est dans son bureau ? → Pas que je sache… Is she in her office? → Not that I know of… rien qu’à + noun On la reconnaît rien qu’à sa voix. You recognize her just by her voice. ne…aucun(e) Il n’y a aucune place [de] libre sur ce vol. There isn’t a single free seat on that flight.  Negation with ni…ni… o Translation: neither…nor, not…[either…] or… o Can put before inf, adj, nouns, adv, or pronouns o If there is preposition, repeat it after each ni o Ex. Mon arrière grand-père ne savait ni lire ni écrire. My grand-grandfather couldn’t read or write. OR could neither read nor write. o Ex. Il n’est ni riche ni beau. o Ex. Je n’ai ni faim ni soif. o Ex. Ce n’est ni bien ni mal. o Ex. Cet appareil-photo n’est ni à lui ni à moi ; il est à mon frère. o Articles after ni…ni…  In absolute negation: definites do not change, indefinite/partitive give choice (ni…ni… with no article after OR pas de…ni de… with no article after)  Ex. Affirmative Negative Definite J’aime la lemonade et le Coca-Cola. Je n’aime ni la limonade ni le Coca-Cola. (I like lemonade and Coke.) Indefinite J’ai acheté un journal et une carte Je n’ai acheté ni journal ni carte postale. postale. OR Je n’ai pas acheté de journal ni de carte postale. Partitive J’aimerais de la limonade ou du Je ne veux ni limonade ni Coca-Cola. OR Coca-Cola. Je ne veux pas de limonade ni de Coca- (I would like some lemonade or Coke.) Cola. o In partial negation  Articles do not change  Ex. Affirmative Il veut du poulet et du poisson. He wants some chicken and some fish. o Absolute Negation Il ne veut ni poulet ni poisson. OR Il ne veut pas de poulet ni de poisson. He doesn’t want any chicken or fish. o Partial Negation Il ne veut ni du poulet, ni du poisson ; il veut juste une petite salade. He doesn’t want either chicken or fish; he just wants a small salad. o Form of verb after ni…ni…  When subjects in 3 person singular, verbs become 3 person plural  Ex. Ni Martine ni sa sœur ne sont jamais allées à Istanbul. Neither Martine nor her sister ever went to Istanbul.  When subjects represented by different grammatical persons, verb always plural and agrees in hierarchy: 1 person > 2 person > 3 person st st  If one is in 1 person (plural or singular), verb goes in 1 person plural (nous)  If subjects in 2 and 3 persons (plural or singular), verb goes in 2 person plural (vous)  Ex. Ni eux ni moi ne sommes allés au Mexique. Neither they nor I have been to Mexico.  Ex. Ni toi ni moi n’avons jamais pu retrouver cet endroit. Neither you nor I were ever able to find that place again.  Ex. Malheureusement, ni vous ni Catherine ne serez libres vendredi prochain ! Unfortunately, neither you nor Catherine will be free next Friday!  Ex. Ni vous ni elle n’arriverez jamais à me convaincre. Neither you nor she will ever succeed in convincing me.  Restriction o Concerning word placed after verb  Use ne…que (only)  Ex. Elle ne boit qu’une seule tasse de café le matin. She only drinks one cup of coffee in the morning.  Alternate phrasing: Elle boit seulement/uniquement une tasse  Ex. Je n’aime que les pommes très acides. I only like very sour apples. o Concerning verb itself  Use ne faire que + inf. (to do nothing but __)  Ex. Le dimanche, elle ne fait que dormir toute la journée. On Sundays, she does nothing but sleep all day.  Ex. Il ne fait que boire et draguer. He does nothing but drink and chase girls. OR The only thing he does is drink and chase girls. o Concerning subject of verb  Several constructions:  Il n’ya que + noun subject/disjoint pronoun + qui + subjunctive  Noun/pronoun subject + est le seul/la seule, etc. + qui + subjunctive  Noun/pronoun subject + est le seul/la seule, etc. + à + inf.  Disjoint pronoun + seul/seule, etc. + indicative  Ex. Il n’y a que Paul/lui qui sache faire ce plat. Paul est le seul qui sache faire ce plat. Paul est le seul à savoir faire ce plat. Lui seul sait faire ce plat. All mean same thing: Paul/He is the only one who knows how to make this dish. OR Only Paul/he knows how to make this dish. o Ne…que… vs. Ne pas…que…  Ne..que = only, just, nothing but  Ne pas…que = not just, not only  Ex. Je ne mange que des légumes. I only eat vegetables. Je ne mange pas que des légumes ; j’aime aussi la viande, le fromage, et les fruits. I don’t only/don’t only eat vegetables; …  Obligatory Omission of pas o When using other negative keywords:  ni…ni, aucun(e)(s), jamais, nulle part, personne, plus, rien, sans, etc.  Ex. Je n’ai mis ni sel ni poivre.  Ex. Nous ne connaissons personne.  Ex. Il n’a rien fait. o With restrictions using ne…que…  Ex. Je n’ai que vingt euros sur moi.  Ex. Il ne vient que le mardi. o In certain idiomatic expressions  Ex. « Je chaintais, ne vous déplaise. » I was singing, like it or not.  Ex. Vous n’avez pas de voiture ? Qu’à cela ne tienne ! Nous vous en prêterons une ! You don’t have a car? Never mind/That’s no problem! We’ll lend you one!  Ex. Je n’ai que faire de vos conseils. (condescending) I have no need for your advice.  Optional Omission of pas o With oser, pouvoir, savoir, and cesser in simple tenses, when verbs followed by inf. st  With pouvoir, use literary form (je ne puis) for 1 person singular in present  Ex. Je n’ose lui avouer la vérité. I dare not tell him the truth.  Ex. Il ne peuvent expliquer cet accident.  Ex. Je ne puis vous le dire. I cannot/I’m not allowed to tell you.  Can use Je ne peux pas  Ex. Je ne saurais vous dire où se trouve ce musée. I couldn’t OR I’m unable to tell you where this museum is.  In indicative, savoir signifies connaître or pouvoir; in conditional negative, signifies only ne pas pouvoir  Ex. Elle ne cesse de se plaindre. She complains constantly. OR She never stops complaining. o After si + present  Ex. C’est un film russe, se je ne me trompe. It is a Russian movie, if I’m not mistaken.  Ex. C’est un Picasso, si je ne m’abuse. It’s a Picasso, if I’m not mistaken.  Ex. Aucun de ces documents n’est valable s’il ne porte le cachet de l’université. None of these documents is valid unless it carries the university seal. o After il y a/cela (ça) fait que…  Ex. Il y a OR Cela/Ça fait une éternité que je ne l’ai vue. (ne explétif) I haven’t seen her in ages. OR It’s been ages since I saw her.  Particular Cases o Jamais vs. Ne…jamais (ever vs. Never)  When jamais means ever, not preceded by ne; when means never, must use ne  Ex. Avez-vous jamais entendu une chose pareille ? Have you ever heard such a thing? Je n’ai jamais entendu une chose pareille. o Rhetorical negation  Negative phrases can have positive sense; equivalent of understatement  Ex. Ce petit vin n’est pas mal du tout. This little wine isn’t bad. (ie. It’s actually quite good)  Ex. Votre composition n’est pas mauvaise. Your composition isn’t bad.  Ex. Faire l’ascension de l’Everest, ce/ça n’est pas rien ! Climbing Mount Everest isn’t exactly a picnic/is no mean feat! (ie. It’s quite an achievement)  Ex. Cette idée n’est pas bête. This idea isn’t dumb.  Ex. Un SDF [Sans Domicile Fixe] s’adressant à un passant : « Vous n’auriez pas une petite pièce ? » A homeless person to a pedestrian: “You wouldn’t happen to have a little change, would you?” (ie. I know you have a little change…]  Ne Explétif vs. Ne Negative o Explétif raises style of writing, no negative meaning; never followed by pas o Not mandatory, but frequent mostly in writing o After verbs/conjunctions expressing fear  ie. avoir peur que, craindre que, de peur que, de crainte que  Only used when subordinate in affirmative  If negative, use ne pas  Ex. J’ai peur qu’elle ne revienne. I’m afraid that she may come back. J’ai peur qu’elle ne revienne pas.  Ex. Je crains que nous n’ayons un problème. Je crains que nous ne soyons pas en avance. o After avant que and à moins que  Ex. Revenez avant qu’il ne fasse nuit. Come back before it gets dark.  Ex. Nous prendrons le train, à moins que ton père ne préfère louer une voiture. We’ll take the train, unless your father prefers to rent a car. o In subordinate comparatives  Introduced by moins/plus…que (but not aussi/autant…que)  Ex. Ce film est moins/plus intéressant que je ne le pensais. Ce film est aussi intéressant que je le pensais.


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