New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

FRIT-F313 Chapter 9 Notes

by: Kathryn Brinser

FRIT-F313 Chapter 9 Notes FRIT-F313

Marketplace > Indiana University > French > FRIT-F313 > FRIT F313 Chapter 9 Notes
Kathryn Brinser
GPA 4.0

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Covers chapter 9 in Contrastes French Grammar book: Past Indicative Tenses (ie. Imparfait, passe compose, and others); Stories in Past Tense (ie. with passe simple)
Advanced French Grammar
Aiko Okamoto-Macphail
Class Notes
frit-f313, frit f313, french, french grammar, advanced french grammar, past te/nses, past tense, passe compose, imparfait, passe proche, plus-que-parfait, plus que parfait
25 ?




Popular in Advanced French Grammar

Popular in French

This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kathryn Brinser on Monday February 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to FRIT-F313 at Indiana University taught by Aiko Okamoto-Macphail in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Advanced French Grammar in French at Indiana University.


Reviews for FRIT-F313 Chapter 9 Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/22/16
Notes de Chapitre 9- Past Indicative Tenses; Stories in Past Tense 9-29-15  Past indicative tenses o Imparfait  Formation  Start with nous form, remove –ons, add endings: -ais -ions -ais -iez -ait -aient  Exception for être: J’étais Nous étions Tu étais Vous étiez Il/elle était Ils/elles étaient  Uses  Establishing context o Describes/explains past circumstances (facts, states of being, actions) in continuity or as they develop (as ongoing process without specific start/end) o Ex. Hier je n’étais pas en forme parce que j’avais de la fièvre. Yesterday I was under the weather because I had a fever. o Ex. Lorsque nous sommes rentré(e)s, il dormait encore. When we came home, he was still sleeping.  Être en train de + infinitive o Can use in imparfait to highlight past action continuing at the time that it is being talked about o Ex. Lorsqu’il est arrivé, nous étions en train de dîner. When he arrived, we were [in the middle of] eating dinner.  Habitual past action without relation to present o Corresponds to used to or would o Ex. L’an dernier, je jouais au tennis une fois par semaine. Last year, I used to play/would play tennis once a week (ie. I don’t anymore). o Ex. Nous allions souvent manger dans ce restaurant. We used to go to this restaurant a lot (ie. We don’t anymore).  Politeness o With vouloir and venir + infinitive o Ex. Je ne voulais pas vous déranger; je venais juste cous dire un petit bonjour. I didn’t mean to disturb you; I just wanted to say hello. o Ex. Nous voulions OR venions simplement prendre de vos nouvelles. We just wanted OR meant to see how you were doing.  After si condition o Can express unreal hypothesis, wish, suggestion o Ex. S’il était plus patient, il ferait moins d’erreurs. (SIC clause; hypothetical) If he were more patient, he would make fewer mistakes. o Ex. Si seulement je pouvais t’aider ! (wish) If only I could help you! o Ex. Et si nous allions au cinema ce soir ? (suggestion) How about going to the movies tonight?  Differences from passé composé o Ex. L’église était ancienne. The church was old. o Ex. L’église a été construite en 1780. (passé composé passive) The church was built in 1780. o Passé proche (immediate past)  Formation  Semi-auxiliary venir (present) + de + infinitive  Can add juste or tout juste to highlight  Ex. Je viens d’arriver. I just arrived.  Ex. Ils viennent tout juste de partir. They’ve just left.  Uses  Expresses closeness to a present or a future  Using imparfait with venir de + inf. o When recounting events/stories o Ex. Je venais de m’endormir quand le téléphone a sonné. I had just gone off to sleep when the phone rang. o Passé composé  Formation  Auxiliary avoir/être (present) + past participle of verb  Verbs with être o Pronominal verbs  Ex. Nous nous sommes promenés sur la plage. o Naître, devenir, and mourir  DRMRSVANDERTRAMP  Ex. Mélanie est née en avril; son père est mort accidentellement quelques mois plus tard.  Ex. Et Thierry, qu’est-il devenu ?  Verbs with avoir o All other verbs, including avoir, être, and impersonal verbs  Verbs of movement: être or avoir?  General rule- following verbs normally conjugated with être: aller arriver (r)entrer (to come [back] in, to return) (re)monter (to go [back] up) (re)passer (to come by [again]) rester (re)descendre (re)tomber (to fall [back]/again) (res)sortir (re)partir s’en aller (to leave) (re)venir/retourner  Particular cases o (re)monter, (re)descendre, (r)entrer, (res)sortir, (re)passer, retourner o When they have DO with no preposition, conjugated with avoir; meaning changes from that with être o Ex. Elle a monté sa valise. She took her suitcase upstairs. Elle est montée. She went upstairs. o Ex. Ils ont descendu le vieux fauteuil au sous-sol. They took the old armchair down to the basement. Ils sont descendus vers cinq heures. They came downstairs. o Ex. Elle a rentré la voiture au garage. She put the car into the garage. Elle est rentrée tard hier soir. She came back late last night. o Ex. J’ai sorti les ordures. I took the garbage out. Je suis sorti(e) avec des amis. I went out with my friends. o Ex. Il m’a passé son ordinateur. He lent me his computer. Il est passé à la banque. He went to the bank. o Ex. Elle a retourné le matelas. She turned the mattres over. Elle est retournée au travail. She went back to work.  Uses  Isolated/punctual events, changes in events o Contrary to imparfait, which describes/explains past circumstances as they happen, passé composé presents discrete events/changes that have been completed o Ex. Aujourd’hui, j’ai pris congé. Today, I took the day off. o Ex. La situation s’est dégradée tout à coup. The situation got worse all of a sudden. o Ex. Ils ont déménagé. They moved.  Habits/frequent actions with connection to present o Ex. Ces gens ont toujours travaillé très dur. These people have always worked very hard (ie. They still do). o Ex. Ils n’ont jamais été riches, mais ils ont toujours vécu confortablement. They have never been rich, but they have always lived comfortably (ie. They’re still not rich, but still live comfortably).  Difference from passé proche o Ex. Il est arrivé ce matin. Il vient d’arriver. o Passé composé vs. Imparfait (habitual/frequent actions)  Both can express these things  Can/still could take place in present- passé composé  No longer occurring- imparfait  Ex. Nous avons toujours très bien mangé dans ce restaurant. We have always eaten very well in this restaurant (ie. We still do). Nous mangions toujours très bien dans ce restaurant. We always ate/used to eat… (ie. We don’t anymore).  Ex. J’ai lu ce roman plusieurs fois. I read this novel many times (ie. I could still read it again today). Je lisais souvent les mêmes romans plusieurs fois de suite quand j’étais adolescent(e). I often would read/used to read the same novels over and over when I was a teenager (ie. I don’t anymore). o Plus-que-parfait  Formation  Auxiliary avoir or être (imparfait) + past participle  Ex. manger → j’ai mangé → j’avais mangé (I had eaten) o finir → tu as fini → tu avais fini (you had finished) o aller → elle est allée → elle était allée  Uses  Circumstances prior to another past o Describing prior circumstances (facts, actions, habits) before another past o In English, chronological succession not as clear as French o Ex. Ils avaient faim parce qu’ils n’avaient rien mangé de toute la journée. They were hungry because they hadn’t eaten all day. o Ex. Elle était furieuse parce qu’elle avait raté (had failed) son examen. o Ex. Dès que j’avais fini mes devoirs, j’allais à la gym.  After si condition o Expressing past that did not happen or regrets o Ex. Si tu me l’avais dit, j’aurais compris. If you had told me about it, I would have understood. o Ex. Ah! Si [seulement] j’avais su ! If only I had known! OR I wish I had known!  Difference from passé proche  Ex. Il était déjà arrivé. He had already arrived.  Ex. Il venait d’arriver. (passé proche using imparfait) He had just arrived.  Stories of the past o Passé composé vs. Imparfait  Passé composé- helps build storyline (sequence of events); establishes succession of punctual events (facts, actions, changes) essential to logic of story  Passé simple- literary/historic texts (equivalent of passé composé)  Imparfait- establishes context of story to describe/explain circumstances surrounding events  Question of logical narrative  Distinction is not matter of chronology, but perspective/logic  Passé composé used to emphasize facts/actions from past o Presents as discrete, abrupt, unusual events/changes  Imparfait describes circumstances surrounding events without particular emphasis  Be able to distinguish events/circumstances  Ex. Events (Passé Composé) Circumstances/Context (Imparfait) Ce matin, j’ai pris le train… …parce que le bus avaient du retard. Tania est passée (came by)… …pendant qu tu étais absent. Quand ils ont appelé… …nous étions en train de dîner.  Question of point of view  If simply describing/explaining fact, process, or action from past (without insisting upon it), use imparfait  If emphasizing fact/action from past as particular event/change, use passé composé  Choice of tense often affects meaning  Ex. Description/Explanation (Imp.) Particular/Unexpected Event (P.C.) Il pleuvait ce matin. Il a plu ce matin. It was raining this morning. It rained this morning. Hier, j’avais mal à la tête. Hier, après avoir bu cet horrible champagne, j’ai eu mal à la tête. Yesterday, I had a headache. Yesterday, after drinking that horrible champagne, I got a headache.  Question of meaning  Certain verbs change meaning with tense (ie. croire, devoir, falloir, savoir, vouloir, avoir, etc.)  Ex. Je croyais que tu reviendrais. I thought OR was under the impression that you would be coming back. J’ai cru que tu reviendrais. I thought OR concluded that you would come back.  Ex. Nous devions partir à 14 heures. We were supposed to leave at 2 p.m. Nous avons dû partir immédiatement. We had to leave immediately.  Ex. Il fallait le leur dire ! You should have told them! Il a fallu le leur dire. We had to tell them.  Ex. Je le savais ! I knew it! OR I’ve always known it! Je ne l’ai su qu’hier soir. I only heard OR found out about it last night.  Ex. Elle voulait y aller. She wanted to go. Elle a voulu y aller. She decided to go.  Ex. J’avais vingt ans. I was twenty [years old]. J’ai eu vingt ans hier. I turned twenty yesterday. o Other tenses in past stories  Facts/general truths  When story contains these and they are still valid in present, leave verb in present  Ex. Galilée a démontré que la terre tourne autour du soleil. (proven truth)  Ex. Au Moyen Âge, on croyait que la terre était plate. (not valid today → imparfait)  Passé proche or futur proche  Put semi-auxiliaries in imparfait (never PC)  Ex. Elle vient d’arriver. → Elle venait d’arriver. She has just arrived. → She had just arrived.  Ex. Elle va vous téléphoner. → Elle allait vous téléphoner. She is going to call you. → She was going to call you.  Futur simple or futur antérieur  Put verbs in present conditional or past conditional  Ex. Je pense que nous aurons terminé à 5h. (futur simple) → Je pensais que nous aurions terminé à 5h. (conditional present) I think we will be done at 5 o’clock. → I thought we would be done at 5 o’clock.  Subjunctive  Verb phrases in present/past subjunctive do not change when main verb is put into past  Ex. Il faut que je reparte. → Il a fallu que je reparte. I have to go back. → I had to go back.  Ex. Il est ravi que tu aies eu une bonne note. → Il était OR a été ravi que tu aies eu une bonne note. He’s delighted that you received a good grade. → He was was delighted that you received a good grade.  Wishes vs. Regrets  When wish (in conditional present) → past, transformed into a regret expressed in conditional past  If wish is part of subordinate verb phrase, no change  Ex. J’aimerais te revoir. → J’aurais aimé te revoir. I’d like to see you again. → I would have liked to see you again.  Ex. Il dit qu’il aimerait te revoir. → Il dit qu’il aimerait te revoir. He says that he’d like to see you again. → He said that he’d like to see you again.  Present that did not happen vs. Past that did not happen  Present- SIC (si + imparfait + conditional present)  Past- si + plus-que-parfait + conditional past  Ex. Si j’avais de l’argent, j’achèterais un iPod. → Si j’avais eu de l’argent, j’aurais acheté un iPod. If I had money [now], I would buy an iPod. → If I had had money [earlier], I would have bought an iPod. In practice: transposition to past If you have… → When transposing to past, use… Present → Passé composé OR imparfait Il arrive à midi. Il est arrivé OR Il arrivait à midi. Passé proche → Passé proche du passé (using imparfait) Il vient d’arriver. Il venait d’arriver. Passé composé → Plus-que-parfait Il est déjà arrivé. Il était déjà arrivé. Futur proche → Futur proche du passé (using imparfait) Il va arriver. Il allait arriver. Futur simple → Conditionnel présent Il arrivera bientôt. Il arriverait bientôt. Futur antérieur → Conditionnel passé Je crois qu’il aura J’ai cru OR Je croyais qu’il aurait terminé avant midi. terminé avant midi. A wish (cond. pr.) → A regret (cond. passé) J’aimerais aller à Paris. J’aurais aimé aller à Paris. Unreal present → Unreal past Si j’avais le temps, Si j’avais eu le temps, je serais j’irais au cinéma. allé(e) au cinéma. However, in subordinate verb phrase: If you have… → When transposing to past, KEEP… Imparfait Je crois qu’elle riait.→ J’ai cru OR Je croyais qu’elle riait (was laughing). Plus-que-parfait Je crois qu’elle avait → J’ai cru OR Je croyais [à l’époque = back then] déjà décidé de partir. qu'elle avait déjà décidé de partir. Conditionnel présent Je me demande ce que → Je me suis demandé (wondered) OR Je me demandais nous pourrions faire. ce que nous pourrions faire. Conditionnel passé Je me demande ce que → Je me suis demandé OR Je me demandais ce que nous nous aurions pu faire. aurions pu faire. Subjonctif présent Il suggère que vous → Il a suggéré que vous reveniez (come back) demain. reveniez demain. Subjonctif passé Elle est contente qu’i→ Elle était contente qu’il soit venu la voir. soit venu la voir.


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.