Note for BIOL 152 with Professor Hagen at KU 4
Note for BIOL 152 with Professor Hagen at KU 4
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Date Created: 02/06/15
About Evolution January 24 Biology 152 Spring 2011 AL 46 if 1 60 SD IMale I FFFF le f 40 cu D E 30 3 z 20 o 48 SD 52 54 56 SE 60 62 64 66 68 7D 72 74 76 78 ED 82 84 86 39m39A eeeeeeeeeeee s quot v Outline Introduction to Evolution What evolution is Evolution process overview What evolution is not Definition of Science Science is a way of knowing a process for learning about the natural world Some questions that science can address Why are organisms similar Why are organisms different Why are organisms adapted Why are organisms similar Common ancestry is the simplest explanation for similarities in a family inheritance Common ancestry similarity in a population 1 inauguvaiiun cvuwd ZElElB Fiickv Cveaiive Cummuns Pedvu Mamiquez Common ancestry similarity in a group ofospecies North Amerim im mr t Tiger Swallowtail Butterflies 8 Similarities among organisms are NESTED Nectarinia senegalensis 9 Nectarinia sunbirds Scarletchested Sunbird Sasol The Larger Illustrated Guide to Birds of Southern Africa Neornithes living birds Nectarinia sunbirds Sasol The Larger Illustrated Guide to Birds of Southern Africa All organisms fit into nested relationships living birds Tree of Life wwwtoweborg Ancestry Explains Geographic Occurrence Biogeography Hummingbirds Americas Sunbirds Africa Asia A Guide to the Birds of Venezuela plate 11 The Birds of East and Central Africa plate 36 Why are organisms different 14 The processes of inheritance are not perfect Descendants are not always identical to each other or to their ancestors Definition Biological evolution is 16 Biological evolution There must be a population There must be reproduction 17 Heritable variation is the essential requirement for evolution 18 Variation within a population Colorblindness 2009 class survey 945 with full color vision 55 with redgreen blindness to some extent 19 Variation within a population 60 50 i I Male I Female 40 i 30 Number 20 10 I Oi i 48 50 52 54 56 58 6O 62 64 66 68 7O 72 74 76 78 8O 82 84 86 Height inches 20 Variation within a population 15 11 T12 10 i a 6 EV IO J i J 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 6O 62 64 66 68 7O 72 74 76 78 8O 82 84 86 88 9O Midterm Exam Scores Most phenotypic variation within populations of real organisms is caused by a mix of genetic and environmental factors Is the variation heritable Colorblindness Height Midterm test score 23 Why are organisms adapted 24 Adaptation a trait that enhances survival or reproduction in a particular environment Movable bones 25 If heritable variation has consequences evolution can proceed rapidly This is the process of Natural Selection consequences Different forms of the heritable trait are more or less likely to be transmitted to the next generation than others 27 Natural Selection and HIV viral coat viral enzyme proteins reverse transcriptaee The Viral DNA ecumee integrated into host cell39s DNA a Vlral RNA enters a T cell l u illl39iral DNA forms by reverse L transcription of viral RNA v viral lipidenvelope RNA with proteins 28 HIV s RNA is Copied to DNA Reverse Transcriptase Nucleotides A T G C 29 HIV s RNA is Copied to DNA AZT Blocks This Step v 4 03 F 46 3 1 39 Reverse Transcriptase a ocq go If Nucleotides 30 How HIV Evolves Resistance to AZT Susceptible I Original susceptible RT enzyme accepts AZT instead of T Resistant Figure 14 EvaluiinnalyAnalysilee 1D 2007 Paarsun PfE IiCE HalLlnr 31 Evolution by Natural Selection Mutation Q Errors in reverse transcription generate a variable population Same variants di er in resistance to AZT r l r M l ampampampampamp aampampr x I L VirinnsusceptibletuAZT Q 939 VirionpartlyresistanttoAZT Q CE Virion highlyresistanttoAZT g as quot quot Q Q E lt e feeeeae Q E eewaastwltisg Q s 55 CE 4 v r r 63 l Resistance or susceptibility is passed from parents During I I 2 E ff5Pquot 9 treatment with CE AZT many virions Q fail to reproduce The variants that persist are the ones that can reprodute in the presence of AZT 32 In most patients AZT resistance evolves within 6 months E E gt10 I II III I I 393 1o m a 9 r s g 7 o E 639 c u 5 O I I 33 4 2 I 3 339 c 2 a I E 1 I I 3 01 l39quot L I 039 WWW lt 0 5 10 15 20 25 Months of therapy 33 Figure 112 Evolutionary Analysis4e 2007 Pearson Prentke Hall Inc Natural Selection depends on the environment Under different conditions the same trait may be more likely less likely or equally likely to be transmitted to the next generation 34 Descent with modification can explain patterns we observe Organisms can be arranged in nested groups speciesltgenusltfamilyltorder by their shared features Species in a group are often found in the same area Fossils occur in predictable sequence in geological strata why Species are not always easy to recognize why 35 We can focus on individuals and their descendants an individual 0 like size Some trait Time 44 enerations 36 We can focus on individuals and their descendants I I an 1nd1v1dual 393 quotI39 F like suze gt K 2 4 ah quotiii 4239 i Some trait 37 or we can focus on the big picture populations or species like size Some trait generations A L Q 1 Ll 393 Mkan39slfoevosl lw UU 38 Evolutionary Processes Natural selection and other processes can cause populations to change over generations some trait like size time 39 Evolutionary Processes but lack of change is also consistent with ideas of evolution some trait like size Evolutionary Processes A single population can break into two or more independent populations Over time they can evolve differences some trait like size Evolutionary Processes Populations can go extinct some trait like size time Did speciation occur in this case 42 Ex nc on 999 of all species that ever lived are EXTINCT Average species duration 4 million years 43 Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution Theodosius Dobzhansky geneticist 19001975 On the other hand EVOLUTION mkANsAs STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION i 3 WE HAVE ow 39 a 6 4 WEED MW 45 Current Public Opinions The following question on human origins has been asked in US public opinion surveys since 1982 46 quotWhich of the following statements comes closest to your views on the origin and development of human beings 1 Human beings have developed over millions of years from less advanced forms of life but God had no part in this process 2 Human beings have developed over millions of years from less advanced forms of life but God guided this process 3 God created human beings pretty much in their present form at one time within the last 10000 years or so order of choices rotated in surveys 47 Views of Human Evolution 19822007 100 D Other No Opinion a 607 lGod Had No Part W D Guided by God 40 r 20 7 D Recent creation by God no evolution 0 00 i i i i i i 1982 1993 1997 1999 2001 2004 2006 2007 48 Public confusion about evolution has lasted for a very long time 1859 Origin of Species Darwin 1864 Electromagnetic Theory Maxwell 1869 Periodic Table of the Elements Mendeleev 49 People care about this question Results from survey of US adults 2005 Does it matter to you How much thought 0 20 40 60 80 100 l A Great Deal IEI A Moderate Amount El Not Much m Not At All III Unsure Results from Survey of US Adults 2005 Question True False Over periods of millions of years some species of plants and animals adjust and survive While other species die and 78 16 6 become extinct Human beings as we know them today 40 21 39 developed from earlier species of animals Why is there a lffemence in the responses 51 The study of evolution especially human evolution raises difficult philosophical and moral questions which science can t answer Questions science can t answer Does life have a purpose What is the ultimate goal of life Is the history of life guided by something outside the physical world 53 lt s tempting to ignore knowledge that leads to difficult questions For th last time my Following l me I39m a dreatiimigt 54 A cycle of ignorance Evolution is not taught in US schools teachers avoid controversy l The US public knows very little about evolution l Many people confuse the science of evolution with the philosophical and moral questions The CreationEvolution Continuum Flat Earthers Special Young Earth Creation Geocentrists Old Earth Theistic Evolution Emmth Atheistic Evolution Source httpwwwncseweboryresourcesarticles 137theicreationevolutionicontinuil2777200015p 56 The CreationEvolution Continuum A God created humans aw beam less than 10000 years ago unisyw 403950 Of US adults If Fquot mm m Source http www ncseweb orgresourcesamcles92l37theicreauonsvoluuonicontxnu712i772000 asp 57
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