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HDFS 129 notes 7

by: Camryn McCabe

HDFS 129 notes 7 HDFS 129

Marketplace > HDFS 129 > HDFS 129 notes 7
Camryn McCabe
Penn State
GPA 3.81

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notes from 2/16-2/18
Intro to HDFS
Molly Countermine
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Camryn McCabe on Monday February 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HDFS 129 at a university taught by Molly Countermine in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views.


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Date Created: 02/22/16
Developmental Tasks of Childhood 2/16-2/18 Autonomy- ability to behave independently; act on one’s own; to have a choice; sense of separateness Shame & doubt- to have self-doubt; to see oneself as incompetent; to think you can’t do anything right  This has roots in criticism Kids are ready for this stage…  Biologically- they can talk rather than just babble; motor skills are rapidly improving (walking rather than crawling)  Socially- because of advancing skills, we become more social; interactions are more meaningful  Psychologically- our sense of self becomes stronger; desire to break out dependency on parents Imitation- observational learning  Observe and imitate behavior of others  Motivation to imitate is to achieve mastery The Terrible Twos- an almost unreasonable insistence on doing things by one’s self  “I can do things for myself AND I have an effect on others”  They like to say “NO” a lot and very quickly Impulse Control- emotional/self regulation  Gaining control over impulses  Kids become increasingly better at controlling themselves as they age  Marshmallow test o Little kids are given 1 marshmallow o Told they can eat that 1, or wait 15 minutes and they will get a 2nd marshmallow o How long they wait to eat it is a measure of impulse control Adults can help with impulse control through…  Modeling  Reassurance (let them know things are okay, but w/o invalidating how they’re feeling)  Suggestions (tell them of how you like to deal with things) Developmental Tasks of Childhood 2/16-2/18 Initiative- ability; power, responsibility; to act/take charge before others do; to assess and act independently Guilt- an emotional state of feelings that you did something wrong, whether you did or not Feelings v. Behaviors  Do we have control over our feelings? No  Our thoughts? Eh, a little bit more  Our behaviors? Yes  Do not confuse a child’s behavior/actions w/inner character  Good girl v. good job o Difference: “You’re good” v. “You did well on that task” o Telling a kid how they work is better than telling them how smart they are  How you work is something you can change o Good job > good girl  The extent to which a child’s attempts at mastery are belittled, his/her sense of guilt will grow Industry- to keep working; to persevere; to problem-solve until you get it done Inferiority- feeling lower in status/quality than others Evidence is mounting that children’s self-esteem is lower in the latter years of elementary school than in preschool and kindergarten  Especially true of boys  Girls’ self-esteem plummets more in adolescence Boys v. Girls  Boys earn 70% of D’s and F’s in school  Boys make up 2/3 of students w/learning disabilities  Boys commit 4/5 crimes in juvenile courts o Girls are actually just as aggressive as boys, however they are socially aggressive, which doesn’t get them in legal trouble  80% high school drop outs are boys  Boys are more than twice as likely to be diagnosed with ADHD  Boys are twice as likely to be held back  11 grade boy = 8 grade girl in writing proficiency Developmental Tasks of Childhood 2/16-2/18  Delayed entrance of boys in kindergarten  Males have more severe physical reactions to distress from infancy (remember the still face experiment) through adulthood Friendships in Childhood What makes a child resilient? “Friendships in the early school years are one of the key building blocks for relationships in later life, and for the level of one’s self-esteem.” – Robert Selman High self-esteem fosters:  Confidence  Competence  Willingness to take chances  Ability to stick up for yourself  Healthy respect for others  Sense of responsibility Low self-esteem is associated with:  Depression and anxiety  Hostility  Difficulty adapting to new circumstances  Mistrust of others  Feeling like a victim Possessing social competence helps in developing the skills for having long-term relationships Why are friendships in childhood so important?  Continuum of attachment  Facilitate separation from family o You end up forming new families through friendships  Ease transition to adulthood  Validate self-concept through consensual validation o Make you feel good about who you are o Even in social media through “liking”  Safeguard against feelings of rejection and loneliness  Hone skills for future relationships  Learn importance of emotional commitment Developmental Tasks of Childhood 2/16-2/18 Childhood Friendships  By 8 or 9, children become very selective in their friendships  Children in middle/late childhood (8-11) spend almost half their day with peers  Children establish a social hierarchy that determines treatment by peers  Most (75%) have solid friendships Types of kids  Popular kids o Popular-prosocial (60%) – performing well in school; communicate with peers in a positive, friendly way o Popular-antisocial (15%)- defying authority; aggressive kids who enhance their popularity by manipulation and exclusion (Regina George)  Rejected kids o Rejected-aggressive (6%)- disliked by peers; disruptive; lack social skills; hostile; interpret others’ acts as intentionally aggressive o Rejected-withdrawn (6%)- socially anxious; expect to be treated poorly; often bullied  Other kids o Neglected (5%)- ignored by others; socially skilled but loners’ do not report being unhappy; considered shy; not at risk; tend to have one friend o Mixed/controversial (8%)- these kids display a blend of positive and negative social behaviors, depending on who they are with; liked by some, not by others What makes a child popular?  Listening to others  Showing enthusiasm  Happy, cheerful disposition  Communicating clearly  Maintaining conversation with even flow of exchange  Physical attractiveness Risk factors  Poverty  Neighborhood/school violence  Early neglect, abuse, harsh parenting  Parental absence Developmental Tasks of Childhood 2/16-2/18  Familial instability These are typically cumulative What makes a child resilient?  Easy temperament  Girls tend to be more resilient than boys  Physical attractiveness  Oldest child w/no siblings until at least 2 years of age  Recruitment of surrogate parents, adult mentors, friend’s families  Empathy; good listening skills  By high school, evidence of an internal locus of control and optimistic confidence in ability to shape events  Androgyny- possessing typical characteristics of both genders; outgoing and autonomous (individual, assertive); nurturing and sensitive Poverty v. Privilege  Poverty o Poor physical health o Deficits in cognitive development o Poor academic achievement o Poor mental health o Antisocial behavior o Hostile family interaction o Less likely to finish college  Privilege o Less emotional closeness with parents o Less supervision by parents o Over-scheduled in activities o Parents who are less available (emotionally and logistically) o Excessive demands for achievement o Fewer family activities and interactions


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