HIST150 The First Industrial Revolution
HIST150 The First Industrial Revolution History 150
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Foster on Monday February 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 150 at Ball State University taught by Dr. Malone in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see The West in the World in History at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 02/22/16
HIST150 The First Industrial Revolution, 1760-1850 Britain 4 significant aspects Key question: Why did it happen in Britain? • 1. New Machines in the cotton textile trade. In 1760, cotton cloth was produced in people’s cottages. Participants were known as “putting out system.” o Hand Machines they processed the raw materials that they bought from the merchant, then gave finished product and got paid. § Spinning machines create thread – one spindle of thread § Hand loom for weaving the thread into clothe • One spindle per machine o Important New Machines: § RICHARD ARKWRIGHT – created the water frame for spinning 1769 – water power machine: 96 spindles of thread § SAMUEL CROMPTON – mule-spinning machine 1779 – 2,000-2,5000 spindles of thread § EDMOND CARTWRIGHT – power loom for weaving 1787 • 2. New Form of Energy – the steam power o In 1769 James Watt unveiled his steam engine; in 1782 he developed a rotary engine that could turn a shaft and power the new cotton textile machines o The steam-powered locomotive and the beginning of the RAILROAD AGE § Link to the development of the cotton textile trade; transportation of goods between MANCHESTER AND LIVERPOOL § In 1763 a canal was built btw. Manchester and Liverpool; it took 36 hours to transport § Businessmen wanted faster transportation § Sept. 15, 1830 – Grand Opening Ceremony of the Liverpool to Manchester Line which was 32 miles’ long § George Stephenson’s Rocket (photo à) § William Huskisson member of parliament of Liverpool – first railroad fatality Development of the railroad: Railroad Mania • Gothic revival in railway architecture • In 1850: 6621 miles, but by 1912: 23,441 miles • 9000 railway stations by 1900 • 1842 – Britain was transformed into one -time zone • By 1850, they could go 50 mph Tunnels • Inspired by the Roman architecture • One woman said it was “like a fairy tale” • People felt a sense of power over nature that had never been felt before. The social and cultural impact of the railroad • 400 thousand people paid to ride the rocket. B y 1850, 67.4 million were traveling • New language, new vocab • People use railway imagery Quotes from preachers • “The line to heaven by us is made, with heavenly truth the rails are laid from earth to heaven the line extends and in eternal life it ends” • “Such taverns as these are railroads to hell; their barrels are engines, which make men revel; their jugs and their glasses, which furnish their trains. Weill empty their pockets and muddle their brains and thus drunkards ride to hell in their I pride with nothing but stea m from the barrel inside ” Anti-drink literature 3. Factories • cotton textile trade • In 1771, Richard Arkwright built the first factory it in the countryside. Built it near a river for his water spinning machine. • Manchester: center of the cotton textile factories. By the 1830s more than 50 had been built in MANCHESTER (the first industrial city) • Manchester photo Conditions in these new workplaces • Importance of time in the workplace • Crammed with machines in early factories. Tried to fit as many as possible. • No concern of safety o Woman got scalped, children got fingers cut off • Windows were shut and locked to prevent theft. HOT 80 -84 degrees. Sometimes 100 degrees o Very little ventilation. Lint got into peoples’ lungs, causing re spiratory ailments • If you worked here, new work patterns beca me a new change in way you work 4. New Work Patterns in Factories • Pre-industrial work patterns; task-oriented work; the custom of Saint Monday o Work until you completed task § These workers have control over their time. Can pick their own hours (SIMILAR TO THE UNIVERSITY) o Irregular work, irregular hours o Saint Monday – pre-industrial custom, day to continue to go to taverns • Industrial work patterns – time-oriented work o Typical workday and sample fa ctory rules o Work is geared to the clock. Workday is set by the clock. 6 days a week. About 14.5 hours (5:-8pm) o In order to mold workers, rules were created § Punctuality § Workers arriving 2 minutes late lose half an hour’s wages § No talking w/workers o Paid someone to knock of their door before work “knocked them up” o What behaviors would lead to fines? Being late , not permission from gatekeeper to leave, leaving early repeatedly late to work, washing you hands in not designated places, smoking o Dismissal? Repeated lateness at work, disobedient workers, arriving drunk • In 1850 – Britain was the world’s leading providing of cotton cloth • The price of cotton cloth in Britain dropped significantly – from 11 schillings to 1 schilling in 1832 The Great Exhibition of 1851 (May 1-Oct. 11) • First industrial fair with 32 nations to participate • Held in Joseph Paxton’s “Crystal Palace: erected in Hyde Park, London] 1. 300,000 panes of glass, 4,500 tons of iron 2. Covered 19 acres 3. Pre-fabrication so it could be taken down at the end of the event • Over 100,000 exhibits in 4 categories: 1. Raw material 2. Machinery**** 3. Various manufactured goods 4. Fine art • Educate about the cotton textile machinery • Present a message to the people: machines are the engines of progress Man versus the machine: The Luddite Movement (1810s) • Armed themselves with sledgehammers and destroyed machines