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FRIT-F313 Chapter 20 Notes

by: Kathryn Brinser

FRIT-F313 Chapter 20 Notes FRIT-F313

Marketplace > Indiana University > French > FRIT-F313 > FRIT F313 Chapter 20 Notes
Kathryn Brinser
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Covers chapter 20 in Contrastes French Grammar book: Indefinites (General ideas, imprecise quantities)
Advanced French Grammar
Aiko Okamoto-Macphail
Class Notes
frit-f313, frit f313, french, french grammar, advanced french grammar, indefinite quantities, quantities
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kathryn Brinser on Monday February 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to FRIT-F313 at Indiana University taught by Aiko Okamoto-Macphail in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Advanced French Grammar in French at Indiana University.


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Date Created: 02/22/16
Notes de Chapitre 20 (not full)- Indefinites (General Ideas, Imprecise Qualities) 11-2-15  General/unspecified quality, quantity, similarity, or difference  Includes adj, pronouns, adv, some nouns, many verb phrases  Aucun and aucunement o Aucun (adj and pronoun)  As adj, usually singular, except if noun it modifies only exists in plural  Agrees in gender with noun  Ex. Je n’ai aucune idée. → Je n’en ai aucune. I have no idea whatsoever. → I have none [not a single one].  Ex. Des vacances ? Non, malheureusement, nous n’en avons aucunes avant Noël. Vacations? No, unfortunately, we have none [at all] before Christmas. o Agreement of verb with aucun subject rd  When aucun(e) is subject, verb is always in 3 person singular  Same when followed by plural expressions like d’entre nous/vous/eux/elles OR de nous/vous/d’eux/d’elles  Ex. Aucun de nous n’est libre ce soir. (NOT sommes libres) None of us is free tonight.  When repeated before several noun subjects, verb can be singular or plural  Ex. Aucune parole ni aucun geste amical ne pourra OR ne pourront la consoler. Neither a kind word not a gesture of friendship will make her feel any better. o Aucunement (in no way, not in the least)  Synonym of nullement  Ex. Je te dérange ? → Aucunement. Am I bothering you? → Not a bit/Not in the least.  Chaque and chacun o Chaque (adj)  Invariable; always singular  Ex. Chaque étudiant OR étudiante suivra quatre cours. Each student will take four courses.  Ex. Chaque fois qu’on se telephone, on cause pendant des heures. Every time we call each other, we chat for hours. o Chacun (pronoun)  Always singular rd  When subject, verb in 3 person singular  Same when chacun(e) followed by plural expressions like d’entre nous/vous/eux/elles OR de nous/vous/d’eux/d’elles  Ex. Ces bouquets de roses sont à quatre euros chacun. These bouquets of roses cost four euros each.  Ex. Chacune d’entre nous avait apporté un cadeau. Each one of us had brought a gift.  Can also signify n’importe qui or tout le monde  Masculine, except if refers explicitly and exclusively to women  Ex. Chacun pourra contribuer au débat. Everybody will be able to take part in the debate.  Ex. Dans cette université de femmes, chacune des étudiantes doit suivre un cours de sciences. …, each of the students must take a science course. o Idiomatic expressions with chacun  Chacun/à chacun sa place. Each one in his proper place.  Chacun/à chacun ses droits. To each his own rights.  Chacun/à chacun son goût/ses goûts. To each his own/It’s a matter of personal taste.  Chacun/à chacun son métier To each man his own trade.  Chacun/à chacun son tour ! One at a time/Wait your turn!  Chacun pour soi. Every man for himself. o Forms of possession after chacun  When chacun(e) is subject, always use son, sa, ses, le sien, etc. or soi  Same if chacun(e) followed by plural expressions like above  Ex. Chacun [d’entre nous/eux] partira de son côté. Each [of us/them] will go his own way.  Ex. Chacune [de vous/elles] est rentrée chez soi. Each one [of you/them] went home.  When chacun(e) not subject but refers to subjects like ils/elles, can use singular or plural possessive adj/pronouns depending  Ex. Ils sont partis chacun de son OR de leur côté. They each went their own way.  Ex. Elles sont rentrées chacune chez soi OR chez elles. They each went home.  When refers to nous/vous, use those possessive adj/pronouns  Ex. Nous sommes partis chacun de notre côté. We each went our own way.  Ex. Vous êtes rentrées chacune chez vous. You each went home.  Nul and nullement o Nul (adj and pronoun)  Nul(s)/nulle(s) normally masculine/feminine singular, except if noun it modifies only exists in plural  In familiar language, adj nul signifies très mauvais  Ex. Nulle ville n’est aussi belle que Paris. No city is as beautiful as Paris.  Ex. Nulles vacances n’ont été aussi agréables que celles que nous avons passées à Corfou. No vacation was ever as pleasant as the one we spent in Corfu.  Ex. Nul n’a le droit d’abandonner ces gens à leur sort. No one has the right to abandon these people to their fate.  Ex. Je suis nul(le) en maths. (familiar) I’m terrible at math. o Nulle part (adv; nowhere)  Opposite of quelque part (somewhere)  Ex. Où diable étais-tu à deux heures ce matin? → Nulle part ! Where in the world were you at 2 a.m. this morning? → Nowhere! o Nullement (adv; in no way)  Ex. Cela n’implique nullement qu’ils aient tort. This in no way implies that they are wrong.  Rien o Placement of pronoun rien  In compound tenses, goes in same place as pas (between auxiliary and participle)  Only use pas and rien if idiomatic expression (« Ce n’est pas rien ! »)  Common in familiar language  Signifies c’est quelque chose (d’extraordinaire, de difficile, etc.)  Ex. Se lever à 4h du matin tous les jours, ce n’est pas rien ! Getting up at 4 a.m. every day is no picnic! o Followed by adj/adv  Examples: autre chose, grand-chose, quelque chose, personne, quelqu’un, etc.  Must insert de, adj always masculine singular  Ex. Vous n’avez rien de mieux à faire ? Don’t you have anything better to do?  Ex. Cela ne me dit rien de bon. (idiom) This doesn’t bode well. o Can also say: Cela ne me dit rien qui vaille. o In affirmative sense  Signifies quelque chose; found in rhetorical questions or with jamais (meaning ever)  In compound tenses, can be put before or after past participle  Ex. Avez-vous jamais rien vu OR jamais vu rien de plus beau ? (affirmative) Have you ever seen anything quite as/more beautiful?  Ex. Je n’ai rien vu. (negative) o Un rien (noun)  Becomes riens in plural  Several meanings, idiomatic  Ex. Ajoute un rien de sel. Add a touch more salt.  Ex. C’est un bon à rien/une bonne à rien. He/She’s a good-for-nothing.  Ex. Il y avait un rien d’ironie dans ta voix. There was a hint of irony in your voice.  Ex. To t’énerves toujours pour des riens ! You always get so worked up about nothing!  Ex. Tu y seras en un rien de temps. You’ll be there in no time.  Ex. Un rien l’habille. She looks good in anything.  Ex. Un rien la fait pleurer. Any little thing makes her cry. o Rien qu’à (adverbial expression; just by…)  Idiomatic; use with reconnaître to signify just by [the way]…  Ex. On la reconnaît rien qu’à son parfum. You recognize her just by her perfume [alone].  Ex. On le reconnaît rien qu’à sa démarche. You recognize him just by the way he walks.  Tel o Tel (such, like, just as)  Tel(s)/telle(s) agrees in gender and number with noun it qualifies  Ex. Une telle attitude est admirable. Such an attitude is admirable.  Ex. Je me méfie de tels compromis. I do not trust such compromises.  Ex. Tel père, tel fils. Like father, like son.  Ex. Annie est restée telle qu’elle était. Annie is still the same as she used to be. o Tel quel (as is, in its original state, etc.)  Agrees in gender and number with noun it qualifies  Ex. Ils ont acheté leur appartement tel quel. They bought their apartment as it was/in its original state.  Ex. La chambre était dans un désordre indescriptible, mais je l’ai laissé telle quelle. The room was in a total mess, but I left it as it was. o Rien de tel que (there’s nothing quite like)  Tel always invariable  Ex. Rien de tel qu’une bonne bière quand a soif ! There’s nothing quite like a nice beer when you’re thirsty!  Ex. Il n’y a rien de tel que les voyages pour vous changer les idées. There’s nothing quite like travel to boost your morale. o Un tel/Untel, tel et tel (so-and-so, what’s-his-name)  Use when person to which these refer to is man/woman; when phrase tel et tel is subject, verb generally singular  Ex. Un tel (Untel)/Tel et tel m’a dit que Paul avait été muté. What’s-his-name told me that Paul had been transferred.  Ex. Il paraît que madame Unetelle, notre voisine de dessus, vend son appartement. I heard that Mrs. What’s-her-name, our neighbor from upstairs, is selling her apartment.  Tout o Tout (adj)  Can be qualifier (whole, entire) or indefinite (all, any, each, every)  Ex. Toute l’université était en émoi. The entire university was in turmoil.  Ex. Tout passage [sg.] doit présenter un passeport valable. All passengers [pl.] must present valid passports. OR Every passenger must present a valid passport.  Ex. Je ne prends ce medicament que tous les deux jours. I take this medication only every other day.  Ex. Pour toute demande [sg.] de visa, veuillez vous rendre au prochain guichet. For all visa applications [pl.], please go to the next window. o Before name of city/person  Invariable; name must be referring to a work  Ex. Tout Paris a fêté le 14 Juillet. The entire city of Paris celebrated the 14th of July.  Ex. Elle a lu tout Marguerite Duras et tout Zola. o Tout (pronoun)  Tout/toute → tous/toutes in plural  In compound tenses, goes before past participle  Ex. Tout est calme ce soir.  Ex. Il n’est pas compliqué ; il mange de tout. He’s not difficult; he eats everything.  Ex. Avez-vous tous lu cet article ? Did you read all this article?  Ex. Il ne reste plus une seule maison, elles ont toutes brûlé ! There isn’t a single house left; they all burned down! o Preceded by relative pronoun  Must insert ce after tout  Ex. Donne-moi tout ce qui est sur la table. Give me everything [that’s] on the table.  Ex. Le vol a été annulé, c’est tout ce que je sais. The flight was canceled, that’s all I know.  Ex. Ce sac est bien pratique ; je peux y mettre tout ce dont j’ai besoin. This bag is really handy; I can put in it everything I need. o Tout (noun: a whole, an ensemble, in all)  Becomes touts in plural, but rare  Ex. Le tout est d’être patient. The main thing is to be patient.  Ex. Il y avait en tout trois-cents personnes. There were in all three hundred people. o Agreement of tout adverb  Invariable except before noun/feminine adj starting with consonant or non-silent h  To know if tout is adv, see if makes sense with another adv  Ex. Nous sommes tout tristes de te voir partir. We’re really sorry to see you leave. o Could replace tout with très  Ex. Le camembert, c’est tout autre chose que le chèvre ! Camembert is quite different from goat cheese! o Could replace tout with absolument  Ex. Déjà toute petite, elle voulait devenir présidente. Even as a very small child, she wanted to become president. o Adj petite feminine and starts with consonant → toute agrees o Tout + adj/noun + que  Equivalent of quelque…que + sub., bien que/quoique + sub., and si…que + sub.  Has same sense as même si  Can be followed by indicative or subjunctive  Agrees like section above (tout adv)  Ex. Il sera oblige de passer son concours demain, tout malade qu’il est OR soit. He will have to take his entrance examination tomorrow, sick as he may be [even if he’s sick]. o Tout en + present participle  Expresses simultaneity of 2 actions that are often contradictory or a concession  Ex. Elle conduit tout en parlant au téléphone. She drives while talking on the phone.  Ex. Tout en prétendant le contraire, il est très jaloux. Even though he pretends otherwise, he is very jealous. o Tout and variations in idiomatic expressions  à tout hasard just in case/on the off chance  à tout prix at any cost  à tout prendre on the whole/all in all  avoir tout d’une star, etc. to look every inch the star, etc.  avoir tout pour réussir/pour soi to have everything going for you  c’est tout bête/simple (familiar) it’s easy as pie  de toute manière/façon, en tout cas anyway/in any case  des opinions toutes faites cut-and-dried opinions  (ne pas) être de tout repos to be really easy/(to be no picnic)  être gentil tout plein OR comme tout to be realy awfully sweet  être tout en larmes/pleurs to be in tears  être tout en sueur to be dripping with sweat  être tout feu tout flamme to be wildly enthusiastic  être tout ouïe/sourire (invariable) to be all ears/smiles  être tout yeux, tout oreilles (invariable) to be all eyes, all ears  jouer le tout pour le tout to stake one’s all/to bet everything  pour tout dire in all honesty  rouler à toute vitesse to drive like a bat out of hell  se sauver à toutes jambes to run away as fast as your legs will carry you  somme toute when all is said and done  tout à coup/tout d’un coup suddenly  tout à fait sure/absolutely/completely  tout à l’heure shortly/in a little while  tout au plus at the most  tout compris all included  tout compte fait on the whole/all things considered  tout de suite straightaway/right there/right with you/immediately/right now  tout le monde everyone/everybody  tout travail/toute peine mérite salaire (proverb) all work [effort] deserves to be rewarded


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