New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

FRIT-F313 Chapter 21 Notes

by: Kathryn Brinser

FRIT-F313 Chapter 21 Notes FRIT-F313

Marketplace > Indiana University > French > FRIT-F313 > FRIT F313 Chapter 21 Notes
Kathryn Brinser
GPA 4.0

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Covers chapter 21 in Contrastes French Grammar book: Plural Forms and Agreement
Advanced French Grammar
Aiko Okamoto-Macphail
Class Notes
frit-f313, frit f313, french, french grammar, advanced french grammar, Adjectives, plurals, nouns, agreement
25 ?




Popular in Advanced French Grammar

Popular in French

This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kathryn Brinser on Monday February 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to FRIT-F313 at Indiana University taught by Aiko Okamoto-Macphail in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Advanced French Grammar in French at Indiana University.


Reviews for FRIT-F313 Chapter 21 Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/22/16
Notes de Chapitre 21: Pluriels et Accords (Agreement) 8-30-15  Plurals: Particular Cases o Bœuf (ox)/œuf/os (bone)  Pronunciation not same in singular as plural  Un oeuf [comme neuf] → des oeufs [comme bleu]  Un bœuf [comme neuf] → des bœufs [comme bleu]  Un os [comme noce] → des os [comme eau] o « Tous les lundis soir… » vs. « Tous les soirs… »  After name of a day, “matin, après-midi, soir” generally unchangeable  Ex. Tous les lundis soir  On their own, “matin” and “soir” add –s in plural; après-midi can be with or without –s  Ex. Nous nous réunissons tous les lundis matin et tous les mercredis après-midi  Ex. « Tous les matins du monde » est un film.  Ex. Viens nous voir un de ces soirs.  To indicate habit (ex. Mondays, Sundays, afternoons, etc.) use singular  Ex. Le lundi, je prends le bus. o Words almost always used in plural form  Arrhes (f) deposit  Ciseaux (m) scissors (un ciseau = chisel)  Devoirs (m) homework (un devoir = duty/piece of HW)  Environs/alentours (m) vicinity/surroundings  Fiançailles (f) engagement  Frais (m) cost/charge/fees (le frais = fresh air/cool place)  Funérailles/obsèques (f) funeral  Gens (m) people  Grands-parents (m) grandparents  Honoraires (m) (doctor/lawyer) fees  Lunettes (f) glasses (une lunette = telescope/round window/opening)  Mœurs (f) customs/habits  Nouvelles (f) news (une nouvelle = piece of news/short story)  Représailles (f) reprisals/retaliations  Pâques Easter  Petits-enfants (m) grandchildren  Pourparlers (m) negotiation talks  Vacances (f) vacantion (une vacance de poste = job vacancy)  Victuailles (f) victuals/food o Nouns and adjectives with 2 plurals  Idéal, final and glacial can end in –als or –aux in masculine plural  Aïeul, ciel, œil, and banal (adj.) have 2 plural forms, but each means different thing  Un aïeul → des aïeuls (grandparents) des aïeux (ancestors)  Le ciel → les ciels (skies) les cieux (heaven [lit. or figurative])  Un œil → des yeux (eyes) des œils-de-bœuf (bull’s eye)  Un objet banal → banals (banal objects) des fours banaux (communal village ovens) o Compound nouns  Alone, adjectives and nouns become plural in compound nouns with hyphen  Ex. Des rouges-gorges (robins)  If noun is composed of a verb, preposition, or prefix, that part is unchangeable  Ex. Des garde-fous (railings) Des arrière-gardes (rearguards) Des anti-inflammatoires o Madame, mademoiselle, monsieur  One-word compounds  Both parts of word change to plural  Ex. Madame → Mesdames Mademoiselle → Mesdemoiselles Monsieur → Messieurs Un bonhomme → des bonshommes o Proper nouns/brand names  Proper nouns to name works of artists/writers are unchangeable  Ex. Des Renoir, des Titien, des Picasso  Objects designed for their brand/product capitalized, unchangeable  Ex. Des Chevrolet, des Jaguar  Certain objects are very familiar; lowercase, generally take –s in plural  Ex. des bics, des frigidaires o Foods/wines, etc.  Products currently used, like alcohols specified by a name, lowercase, take –s  Ex. des bries, des gruyères, des cognacs, des champagnes o Names  Proper nouns (people, towns, countries) usually unchangeable  Ex. Les Clinton, les deux Montréal  Exceptions: names of ancient ruling families  Ex. Les Capétiens, les Bourbons, les Tudors (pas Bonaparte) o Created names/phrases  Odd names that have been coined follow same rule as majority of words, taking –s in plural  Ex. Des barmans, des cappuccinos, des confettis, des lasagnes, des paninis, des whiskys o « Amour » et « orgue »  In singular, both masculine  When plural, « amours » is feminine for literary writing  « orgues » only feminine when describing instrument  Adjective Agreement: Particular Cases o Generally, adjectives agree in gender and number with nouns o Singular nouns starting with vowels  Beau livre → bel enfant  Monde fou (mad world/big crowd) → fol amour  Caramel mou (chewy) → mol effort (languid)  Nouveau cours → nouvel ami  Vieux manteau → vieil homme o Plural noun qualified by 2 adjectives and “et”  Depending on context, can stay singular  Ex. Les première et deuxième questions de l’examen étaient faciles.  Ex. Les plus riches et célèbres acteurs y étaient. o Adjective qualifies noun complementing another noun  Agrees according to logic  Ex. Donnez-moi un kilo de tomates bien mûres (ripe).  Les tomates sont mûres  Ex. J’ai acheté une douzaine d’œufs tout frais (fresh).  Les œufs sont frais o Expression « avoir l’air + adj. »  Adjective agrees with either « air » (m. sing.) or subject  If subject is a thing, adj. always agrees in gender/number with thing  Ex. Elle a l’air content (OR contente). o Ces incidents ont l’air graves. o « Gens »  Gens is masculine plural; if immediately preceded by qualifying adj., becomes feminine plural; if adj. is after, it agrees with masculine plural  Ex. Ces vieilles gens habitent à Bloomington.  Ex. Ce sont des gens charmants  Exception: if « jeunes gens » preceded by adjective, it agrees with masculine (not fem) plural o « Demi- »  Followed by hyphen  Before noun/other adj., unchangeable  After noun (without hyphen), always singular, agrees with gender of noun  Ex. Achète-moi une demi-douzaine d’œufs.  Ex. Nous avons attendu deux heures et demie. o « Marcher nu-pieds… » vs. « Marcher pieds nus… »  In front of noun, “nu-” (followed by hyphen) unchangeable  After noun (without hyphen), agrees normally  Ex. Ils vont nu-tête. They are without a hat  Ex. Il marchait pieds nus. He was walking barefoot o « Grand »  Before singular feminine noun, « grand- » unchangeable  Ex. Une grand-mère, une grand-tante  Before plural feminine noun, « grand- » can stay unchanged or be put into masculine plural  Ex. Des grand-mères OR des grands-mères  Before plural masculine noun, « grand- » agrees normally  Ex. Des grands-pères o « Petits-enfants » only exists in plural  For singular, use « petit-fils » or « petite-fille » o Foreign adjectives are unchangeable  Kitch/kitsch, standard, chic  Ex. C’est une recette standard. o Nouns/adj. describing food/drinks are unchangeable  Ex. Des pommes de terre béchamel potatoes in béchamel sauce  Ex. Des tartes Tatin caramelized upside-down apple pies o If adj. modifies another adjective or a verb (other than être, paraître, sembler, avoir l’air), it is unchangeable; functions as adverb  Ex. Ces fleurs sentient bon  Ex. Ces chaussures coûtent cher o Adverbs used like adjectives are unchangeable  Ex. Ce sont des gens bien These are good people  Ex. Il ne reste que des places debout o Adjectives of color  Used alone, agree normally with nouns  Ex. Des plantes vertes, une jupe blanche  If color expressed with 2 words, adj. stays unchangeable; if both are colors, use hyphen  Ex. Des yeux bleu clair (light)  Ex. Une robe bleu-vert  Unchangeable adjectives of color  Foreign origin: auburn, kaki (khaki)  Named by things: aubergine (eggplant), cerise (cherry), corail (coral), émeraude (emerald), marron (dark-brown), noisette (hazel), orange, safran (saffron), etc.  Exceptions (agree): rose (pink), mauve, écarlate (scarlet), pourpre (crimson)  Bicolor and tricolor  Adj. unchangeable  Ex. Des drapeaux bleu, blanc, rouge tri-colored flags Des drapeux bleus, blancs, et rouges 3 types of single-color flags  Ex. Des maillots vert et jaune green and yellow shirts Des maillots verts et jaunes green shirts and yellow shirts


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.