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FRIT-F313 Appendix 3 Notes

by: Kathryn Brinser

FRIT-F313 Appendix 3 Notes FRIT-F313

Marketplace > Indiana University > French > FRIT-F313 > FRIT F313 Appendix 3 Notes
Kathryn Brinser
GPA 4.0

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About this Document

Covers Appendix 3 in Contrastes French Grammar book: Rare and Literary Tenses. Included: Passe simple, passe anterieur, passe surcompose, subjunctive imparfait, plus-que-parfait.
Advanced French Grammar
Aiko Okamoto-Macphail
Class Notes
frit-f313, frit f313, french, french grammar, advanced french grammar, passe simple, passe anterieur, passe surcompose, past tenses, subjunctive, subjunctive imparfait, plus-que-parfait-plus que parfait
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kathryn Brinser on Monday February 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to FRIT-F313 at Indiana University taught by Aiko Okamoto-Macphail in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Advanced French Grammar in French at Indiana University.


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Date Created: 02/22/16
Appendix 3 Notes- Rare/Literary Tenses 9-29-15  Passé Simple o Formation  Regular –er verbs  Take nous form, drop –ons, add endings: –ai -âmes –as -âtes –a -èrent  Regular –ir/-dre verbs  Take nous form, drop –ons, add endings (same for both kinds): –is -îmes –is -îtes –it -irent  Other verbs  Many form passé simple starting with past participle  Participle ending in –u, endings are generally: –us -ûmes –us -ûtes –ut -urent  Participle ending in –i, endings are generally: o –is -îmes o –is -îtes o –it -irent  Particular case: être o Je fus Nous fûmes o Tu fus Vous fûtes o Il/elle fut Ils/elles furent  Completely irregular verbs  Craindre (to fear)→ il craignit, ils craignirent  Écrire → il écrivit, ils écrivirent  Faire → il fit, ils firent  Mourir → il mourut, ils moururent  Naître → il naquit, il naquirent  Tenir (to hold) → il tint, ils tinrent  Venir → il vint, ils vinrent  Voir → il vit, ils virent o Uses  Written literary equivalent to passé composé  Expresses achieved action with no contact with present  Outside literature/historical texts, used in written press in il/elle or ils/elles forms  Ex. Le candidat acheva son discours dans un tonnerre d’applaudissements. The candidate ended his speech under thunderous applause.  Ex. Louis XVI et Marie-Antoinette moururent sur l’échafaud. Louis XVI and Marie-Antoinette died on the scaffold.  Passé Antérieur o Formation  Auxiliary avoir or être (passé simple) + past participle  Ex. fermer → il a fermé → il eut fermé finir → elles ont fini → elles eurent fini partir → il est parti → il fut parti o Uses  Only written  Expresses accomplished event coming before another past fact rd  Mostly used in 3 person singular or plural in subordinate clauses of time introduced by conjunctions:  à peine…que, après que, dès que (as soon as), lorsque, quand, une fois que, etc.  In English, concept of chronological succession not as clear as in French, especially after these  Ex. Dès qu’il fut arrivé (passé ant.), le roi demanda (passé simple) à voir ses ministres. As soon as he arrived/had arrived, the king asked to see his ministers.  Ex. À peine eut-on entendu (passé ant.) l’explosion qu’on donna (passé simple) l’alarme. Almost immediately upon hearing the explosion, they sounded the alarm.  Passé Surcomposé o Formation  avoir or être in passé compose + past participle  Ex. terminer → j’ai terminé → j’ai eu terminé partir → il est parti → il a été parti o Uses  Only spoken; extremely rare  Does not exist for pronominal verbs  Equivalent of passé antérieur  Also recalls a past accomplished event  Ex. Ce n’est qu’après qu’il l’a eu quittée qu’elle s’est rendu compte combien elle l’aimait. It is only after he had left her that she realized how much she loved him.  Subjunctive Imparfait and Plus-que-Parfait o Formation of sub. imparfait  Put passé simple of verb in tu form  Depending on passé simple ending, sub. endings are: o –as: -asse, -asses, -ât, -assions, -assiez, -assent o –is: -isse, -isses, -ît, -issions, -issiez, -issent o –ins: -insse, -insses, -înt, -inssions, -inssiez, -inssent o –us: -usse, -usses, -ût, -ussions, -ussiez, -ussent  Il/elle form always takes t and accent circonflexe (or sometimes tréma) over last vowel  Notable verbs  être → tu fus → que je fusse, que tu fusses, qu’il/qu’elle fût, que nous fussions, que vous fussiez, qu’ils/qu’elles fussent  avoir → tu eus → que j’eusse, que tu eusses, qu’il/qu’elle eût, que nous eussions, que vous eussiez, qu’ils/qu’elles eussent  aimer → tu aimas → que j’aimasse, que tu aimasses, qu’il/qu’elle aimât, que nous aimassions, que vous aimassiez, qu’ils/qu’elles aimassent  finir → tu finis → que je finisse, que tu finisses, qu’il/qu’elle finît, que nous finissions, que vous finissiez, qu’ils/qu’elles finissent  venir → to vins → que je vinsse, que tu vinsses, qu’il/qu’elle vînt, que nous vinssions, que vous vinssiez, qu’ils/qu’elles vinssent  haïr (to hate) → to haïs → que je haïsse, que tu haïsses, qu’il/qu’elle haït, que nous haïssions, que vous haïssiez, qu’ils/qu’elles haïssent o Formation of sub. plus-que-parfait  Put être or avoir into sub. imparfait, add past participle  Ex. manger → que j’eusse mangé, que tu eusses mangé, qu’il/qu’elle eût mangé, que nous eussions mangé, que vous eussiez mangé, qu’ils/qu’elles eussent mangé  Ex. aller → que je fusse allé(e), que tu fusses allé(e), qu’il/qu’elle fût allé(e), que nous fussions allé(e)s, que vous fussiez allé(e)(s), qu’ils/qu’elles fussent allé(e)s  Do not confuse il/elle forms of indicative passé antérieur and sub. p-q-p  In sub. p-q-p, auxiliary has ^ accent  Ex. après qu’il eut vu avant qu’il n’eût vu  Ex. après qu’elle fut arrivée avant qu’elle ne fût arrivée o Uses  Hardly used except in writing  Found in past phrases after verbs needing sub.  After à moins que/avant que as well as verbs of fear, ne explétif mandatory  Frequent in literature  In current language, replaced respectively by sub. present and passé  Ex. Nous avions peur qu’il ne tombât malade. [sub. imparfait] (literary style) Nous avions peur qu’il (ne) tombe malade. [sub. present] (current style) We were afraid that he would become ill.  Ex. Elle regretta qu’il fût parti sans lui donner d’explication. [sub. p-q-p] (literary style) Elle a regretté qu’il soit parti sans lui donner d’explication. [sub. passé] (current style) She regretted that he [had] left without giving her any explanation.  In literature, sub. p-q-p sometimes has same “value” as conditional passé, notably in expressions like on eût dit… (it looked as though) or il eût été… (it would have been)  Ex. Il eut été inutile d’insister. [sub. p-q-p] (literary style) Il aurait été inutile d’insister. [conditional passé] (current style)


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