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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brianna Carmony on Monday February 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Rel 1350-15 at Baylor University taught by Bennesh in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Christian Heritage in Religious Studies at Baylor University.
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Date Created: 02/22/16
Monday, February 22, y Religion Test 2 Notes for Week 6 Benedict of Nursia founder of Monte Cassino; regarded as the father of Western Christian monasticism; His rule was the standard for monasticism in the West; the rules included obedience and humility, daily hours of prayer, living modestly and without possessions, hard work, and complete obedience to the abbot; monks are allowed to have nothing (no pens, tables, or books) —Pope Urban 2 initiated the first Crusade at the council of Clermont to rescue the Holy land and Eastern Church from Muslim control; —Bernard of Clairvaux He is best known for his devotional and spiritual writings; He wrote a new rule for the Knights Templar at the request of the Council of Troyes —Anselm of Canterbury known as the father of scholasticism; argued that faith precedes and assists reason: motto is “faith seeking understanding”; proposed the satisfaction theory of the atonement (argued that Jesus Christ’s obedience in suffering and crucifixion paid the debt that had been created when humanity disobeyed God’s commands, thus dishonoring God. —Thomas Aquinas Dominican monk, known as the most influential Christian theologian of the medieval period (his writing are “Summa Theologica”); believed that God was revealed through reason and faith. —Pope Boniface VIII issued the papal bull, Unam Sanctam, he stipulated that every human authority, including that of the state, was obligated to submit to the papacy and the Church —Francis of Assisi founded the Franciscian order and helped found the Order of St. Clare (a female Franciscan order); introduced the Christmas nativity scene; spoke and preached to animals so he is known as the patron saint of animals and creation 1 Monday, February 22, y —Clare of Assisi founder of the Poor Clares; her rule was apostolic poverty which was based on Francis of Assisi teachings —Doctrinal definitions formulated in response to challenges, were internal, attempts to clarify which views held among Christians were most correct —Architecture almost as equal to worship because there had to be a place to worship at; medieval designers used used visual stimuli to teach scripture; Romanesque or “Romanlike” buildings had rounded arches and heavy walls; Gothic was the opposite which implied barbarians; stained glass was used to represent Christ as the Good Shepherd, the suffering servant or, Marys baby; Jesus became someone to love, not just fear —Monks earliest monks took their cues from John the Baptist and Jesus and went to the desert tp pray and and to “pommel the body”(fasting, sleep deprivation, etc.); monastic rule was developed by Benedict of Nursia (intended to reduce abuse and make life endurable); days are centered on prayer and work, 7 times a day; the abbot(“father”) governed them and was chosen by the monks; sometimes known as prayer warriors; —Friars kept monastic vows but traveled; there are Franciscand and Dominicans —Parish Discipline war was a sin, adultery called for 7 years of penance; the ultimate goal of acts of penance was to restore the sinner to full fellowship with other Christians through repentance, confession, and restitution —Heresy worse than infectious disease because it contaminates the spiritual soul —Mysticism focused on the aspect of God and Christian life which were beyond reason; some people experienced visions and revelations —Economic Changes capitalism is the idea that one should invest profits to make more profits —Universities 2 Monday, February 22, y Medieval christians invented the modern system of higher education; invented mainly to help the church; the bachelors of arts was basic to almost all programs; —Desiderius Erasmus He printed an edition of the Greek New Testament; Erasmus and Luther engaged in a harsh debate over the role of human free will, with Erasmus affirming human cooperation with God in the process of salvation.; “Dulce vellum inexpertis” says “War is sweet to them that know it not” —Martin Luther German monk; sparked the Protestant reformation with the publication of the “95 Theses”; translated the Bible to German; believed that the Bible taught justification by faith alone; people should outwardly proved penitence —>Transformation and Renaissance —The Black Death bubonic plague that killed a third of the population; “Little Ice Age” caused periodic famine and temporary shortages; “Ring around the Rosie” was meant for children that died from the plague; —The Babylonian Captivity Clement moved his headquarters to papal territory inside France at Avignon, this seventy years at Avignon was referred to as the Babylonian Captivity, reminding pious church people of the seventy years Israel spent in Babylon 3
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