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MCDB 1b second half

by: Anahit Ghaltaghchyan
Anahit Ghaltaghchyan

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Notes of cardiovascular and excretory system
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anahit Ghaltaghchyan on Monday February 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MCDB 1B at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by Finkelstein in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 74 views. For similar materials see MCDB 1B in Microbiology at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.


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Date Created: 02/22/16
plant physiology 02/17/2016 ▯ ▯ 60-70% of our blood is in our veins ▯ Arteries and arterioles have  Elastic fibers enabling them to withstand high pressures  Smooth muscle cells allowing them to contract and expand, alter their resistance and thus blood flow ▯ Veins have valves to prevent backflow of blood ▯ ▯ Capillaries- about a single blood cell can fit through at a time. Very thick wall in the arteries compared to veins ▯ ▯ Atherosclerosis- hardening of the arteries, buildup of plaque ▯ Thrombus(clots) can form ▯ ▯ Arterioles control distribution to capillary beds: precapillary sphincters alter diameter/resistance to blood flow subject to both local and systemic controls ▯ Muscle fibers wrapped around the arteriole, can restrict flow to capillary bed which makes the bed close ▯ ▯ Local and systemic regulation of blood pressure  Local accumulation of metabolic wasted. Widening of the vessels to get blood to capillary beds. But as you open up a lot of capillary beds, the overall arterial pressure tends to fall. Needs a systemic response to respond to such changes. Found in different parts of the body (such as stretch receptors), kidney etc. send to hormonal signals with a net affect of increasing water reabsorption or stimulate thirst, leading to rise in arterial pressure  Feedback mechanism^^^   Arterial pressure can also be regulated by the nervous system by acetylcholine in the PNS or epinephrine from Sympathetic. o Responses to changes in the central blood pressure and composition mediated by NS and hormonal signals  Sympathetic releasing epinephrine.. increases BP, decreases blood flow(except skeletal system)  Parasympathetic- release acetylcholine that will relax the smooth muscle, increases flow, decreases blood pressure ▯ ▯ What controls direction and identity of material movement between blood and interstitial fluid?  Direction- control by balance between blood pressure and osmotic pressure starlings pressure  Hydrostatic pressure inside those capillaries is greater than the osmotic pressure. Net outward force in arterial end  Vein end have the opposite  Net fluid loss across the capillary bed due to more fluid leaving in the arterial end  Gets back into the blood stream by the lymphatic system  Identity of molecules moving depends on concentration gradients, permeability and_________ ▯ Tissue specific differences in selectivity  Continuous  Fenestration  Discontinuation  `capillary walls are 1 cell layer thick  most tissues except the brain have small pores in these walls that make them leaky  capillaries of all tissues are permeable to o2 co2 glucose lactate and small ions  lack of pores in most brain capillaries is what causes the blood brain barrier, only lipid soluble materials can get across  digestive and excretory system much less selective ▯ returning blood and fluid of heart  veins have a high capacity for storing blood because walls are very expandable  lymphatic vessels return to fluid to major veins returning to the heart  skeletal muscle contractions, breathing, and gravity help veins and lymphatic vessels carry blood and fluid back to the heart  valves prevent back flow  gas exchange at the alveoli  HIGH surface area of about 70 m^2  Blood moves rapidly through capillaries surrounding alveoli  Movement maintains o2 and co2 concentration gradients promoting diffusion . co2 in blood is much higher in blood compared to alveoli. Moves down concentration gradient ▯ ▯ Red blood cells are efficient oxygen carriers  Small biconcave, high surface area/volume, aids diffusion  Anaerobic metabolism  Contains hemoglobin ▯ Blood composition/function  Transport gases via liquid medium, despite low solubility of gas in liquid ▯ Lower pH leads to more oxygen being released ▯ ▯ Oxygen binding adaptation if hemoglobin ▯ Live at low pressures of o2. Increases binding affinity ▯ Fetal hemoglobin has higher affinity than maternal. Higher affinity shifts towards the y axis/ steeper ▯ Myoglobin has an exponential type graph ▯ ▯ RBC production stimulated by low oxygen content in tissues ▯ Flow chart thing with kidneys ▯ ▯ Recombinant erythropoietin and related products produces for anemia therapy  Used to overcome anemia from cancer, cancer treatments, or dialysis, avoid blood transfusions  Amgens first blockbuster products with 2.5 billion dollars in sales in 2010   Safety issues-overuse leads to strokes and heart attacks. Thickening of blood  Abuse in endurance sports (cycling)  ▯ Removal of co2 in tussues ▯ Action of carbonic anhydrase maintains co2 concentration gradient from cells(high) to plasma(low). Some co2 complexes with deoxygenated hemeglobin ▯ ▯ ▯ In active muscles- hemoglobin readily unloads oxygen ▯ ▯ ▯ Purpose of excretory system  Blood carries nutrients and waste requires filtration to remove garbage  Maintains osmotic balance of cells to prevent extreme volume changes  Requirements and mechanisms vary depending on organisms environment o Live in fresh water- need to excrete water, conserve solutes o Live in ocean- equilibrate extracellular fluids ▯ ▯ Waste products of metabolism- nitrogenous waste must be excreted and or detoxified. Co2 and water are also wasted but those are easily taken care of.  Ammonia  Ureotelic  Uric acid (relatively insoluble)  Urea (relatively soluble) ▯ ▯ Functions  Filter body fluids  Actively secrete and reabsorb specific molecules  Structures o Invertibrates0 have diverse excretory systems o Vertebrates have kidneys ▯ KIDNEY  The nephron is the functional unit of the kidney 3 major parts of nephron 1. renal corpuscule=glomerulus and Bowmans capsule where filtration occurs o 2 arterials in between. Not “regular” 2. renal tubule is the site of secretion and absorption, surrounded by capillaries 3. collecting duct=site of urine processing, where concentration or dillusion ▯ the concentrating ability of the mammalian kidney depends on its anatomy  entry/exit of blood on concave side  nephrons regularly arranged within kidney  ▯ nephron arrangement within kidney  glomeruli in cortex  renal tubules loop through medulla  collecting ducts start at cortex, pass through medulla, empty into ureter  ▯ renal corpuscule structure/function ▯ glomeruli are highly permeable capillary beds ▯ bowmans capsule cells surround the glomerlu ▯ podocytes are surface cells of the bowmans capsule ▯ ▯ blood pressure forces water and small molecules from glomerulus into bowmans capsile  small molecules=waste products such as glucose amino acid, salts, waste  proteins are too large to get out of the blood which is a wonderful thing ▯ cells and large molecules are retained in blood ▯ ▯ under pressure getting forced out into bowmans capsule  pressure from the beating of our heart  regulated by arterioles leading into and out of these capillary beds  ▯ blood enters a nepharons vascular component by the way of the afferent arteriole ▯ ▯ through the glomerulus (in the larger scheme of things) but it starts at the afferent. Afferent-glomerulus( which is part of the vascular component) ▯ ▯ ▯ Renal tubule structure/function ▯ ▯ Nephron tubules may loop across the kidney ▯ 4 specialized zones  proximal convoluted tubule  loop of Henle  distal convoluted tubule  collecting duct- receives material from nephrone  ▯ Cells structure in the different zones of the renal tubules reflects functions ▯ Proximal convoluted tubule- transports nacl out of the tubular fluids and water follows, also transports glucose. Things that the body tries to save are pulled out in the proximal tubule and sent back into the blood supply. NOT waste products  Macrovili  Mitochondria REQUIRES ENERGY TO TRANSPORT ▯ ▯ Loop of henle (thin portion)  Permable to water and small molecules  ▯ Distal- transport of nacl out of ▯ Collecting duct little active tansport- urine concentration through osmosis ▯ ▯ Proximal convoluded tubule ▯ Functions- major site of reabsorption of salt glucose and aa’s. water follows by osmosis. No active transport of water ▯ Ph regulation by secretion of protons, reabsorption of bicarbonate. BICARBONATE Buffer system ▯ Materials removed from tubules returned to venous blood via uptake in peritbular capillaries ▯ Blood pH affected by  Diet  Exercise  Disease states ▯ Kidneys excrete acids and conserve bases ▯ ▯ Lungs and kidneys have opposite effect on the pH ▯ Lungs increase in co2. Decrease in blood pH ▯ Kidneys increase bicarbonate- increase in blood pH ▯ ALLOWS FOR THE STABILIZATION OF THE BLOOD pH ▯ ▯ Structure- cells have lots of macrovilli on lumen face. Large surface area for reabsorption ▯ ▯ ▯ LOPPS OF HENLE is the counter current multiplier ▯ Function- creates concentration gradient tin medulla by countercurrent exchange (antiparallel flow of materials used to create steep gradient)  300- 1200 mm another example of countercurrent exchange anti parallel flow of materials (oxygen in blood cs water) creates steeper gradient than parallel flow because concentration gradients maintained through area of exchange ▯


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