US History after 1877
US History after 1877 History 111
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The Civil Rights Revolution Protests o Rising Tide of Protests Sit-Ins Greenville, NC 1968 o 4 students in a Woolworths o White only area o Refused service and sat there until it closed o Continued to return day after day o 5 months-others joined them Caved, allowed them to be served o Enforce Desegregation/integration o Desegregation was a necessity 1960s- Raleigh North Carolina—CORE SNCC—Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee Worked give African Americans control of things affecting their lives Freedom Rides Integrated Groups to the South to enforce court cases Buses were burned with police as spectators Non-Violent from the protestors 1961—SNCC began nonviolent against racial segregation in Albany Georgia 1962—U of Mississippi forced to admit first black student Martin Luther King o Birmingham 1963-Protest—demonstrators equality in schools, housing, etc Over 1,000 protestors arrested 186 cities protesting Started in Birmingham Local AA protestedlittle success MLK—Letter from Birmingham Jail Attacked groups with Fire Hoses, night sticks, and attack dogs Kennedy o March on Washington August 28, 1963 High point of Civil Rights Labor, Church groups Largest Protest in American History Fight unemployment, minimum wage increase All speakers were male o Fannie Lou Hamer SNCC Voter registration Family were sharecroppers New form of slavery Indentured Servitude 1961—Forced Hysterectomy without her knowledge Prevent poor blacks on welfare Continue to organize the group Arrested for potential illegal behavior Blackjacks- clubs the police would use and force others to use Freedom Democrats of Mississippi- Get rid of all Anti- Democrats representation 1964-Democratic Convention Johnson- Seen her as a threat and called her an illiterate woman Mondale 1972-Elected as a national party delegate Adopted and raised two children Kennedy Years Foreign Policy o Kennedy and the World Peace Corps Way to prevent communism New American Policy o Reiteration of Marshall Plan Cuba USSR and Russia Cuban Missile Crisis Castro strong relationship with USSR Kennedy refused advice to invade Cuba Khrushchev- USSR leader at the time 13 days world was on brink of total nuclear war Kennedy tried to reduce tensions Cold War and Civil Rights o Civil Rights 1962- ban discrimination of federal housing November 22, Assassinated Lyndon Johnson’s Presidency Civil Rights o Civil Rights Act of 1964 Barred discrimination of employment, housing, business, based on gender, race, and/or ethnicity Conservatism o 1964 Election Conservatism Weakened AA faith that they could break the parties Rise of Goldwater Republican Women Grassroots Movement George Wallace Republican and Democratic states switch Buckley-shaped students thinking Young Americans for Freedom Movement Voting and Immigration o Voting Rights Act MLK led march from Selma to Washington DC 1965- belief spread that race couldn’t create second class citizens Social Reforms Welfare o Great Society New Deal ideology Promote general welfare 1965-67—Johnson provide health services to the poor and the elderly Medicare Medicaid Department of transportation EEOC- Equal employment opportunity committee PBS-cartoons Response to prosperity not depression Tax cut for individuals in 1964 o Poverty Fluency abundance Caused by lack of skill and terrible attitudes SNAP—food stamps Head start program Economic Liberty o Freedom and Equality Reinforced by Civil Rights movement Reduced poverty rates 27% 13% The Changing Black Movement Urban Riots o Ghetto Uprisings Harlem-1964 Watts-1965 50,000 rioters National Guard called 35 people killed 1967- New York/ New Jersey and Detroit Riots Violence in ghettos brought to light discrimination of employment White racism Harsher along racial lines Black Power o Malcolm X AA must control resources of their own communities Dropped surname to note slavery removed AA from knowing their heritage Travelled to Mecca Father of black power March of Mississippi Vietnam and the New Left Student Movement o Old and New Lefts Protest movement known as the new left Rejection of categories shaping liberalism 7 million attended college by 1968 Rise of the University is because of the Baby Boomers Social Criticism o Fading Consensus 1962—Students for Democratic Society Cold War Policy o American and Vietnam Homegrown Communist Administrators seen Vietnam as related to the Soviets Containment of Communism Truman and Eisenhower obtain Vietnam as a colony Counter insurgencies Vietcong Large Buddhist protests against regime Condemned the war with violence US men fleed to Canada to avoid being drafted o Feminine Mystique Betty Freedan Upper and Upper Middle Class Starts women’s liberation movement National Organization of Women New Movements and The Rights Revolution Personal Rights o Personal Freedom Sexism Sexual Politics Sexual relations were political Control over sexual reproduction was a woman’s rights o Gay Liberation Stonewall, 1969, bar Gay Bar Raided by police Two women stood up when police raided o Marsha P Johnson African American Transgender o Silvia Rivera African American Woman Transgender o Chicano/Latino Power Chavez- Labor Grapes in south west Limited Labor Farms 1970s-growers had sign contracts with unions Latino Women-freedom and equality for all members La Raza Assert rights of labor rights Intersectionality Race Class Gender o Red Power/ American Indian Movement Wounded Knee Took control of borders Feds called in Government wasn’t keeping their treaties Alcatraz Abandoned prison Native American land before prison Environmentalism o New Environmentalism National Parks Roosevelt era Conservation movement 1890s- Sierra Club founded Issues around DDT Toxic chemical Push to get it banned Every state banned quickly Sign of personal freedom Oil spill off the California coast Infringement on property rights Nixon-congress passed bills to protect environment Earth Day-20 million people o Rise of Ralph Nader Well known consumer advocate Auto companies were creating unsafe vehicles— wrote a book Consumer Safety Civil Liberties o Rights Revolution Earl Warren- expanded rights of all Americans Courts moved towards personal rights of people Strike down state segregational laws Banned laws against interracial marriages Pressed states to press civil liberties Miranda Rights- Arizona Had to be read the rights you have as a citizen in the custody of police Griswold vs. Connecticut Constitutional Right to Privacy o Contraception o Privacy within marriage—Bill of Rights o Access to birth control o Constitutional Right to Abortion Roe vs. Wade Woman’s right to have power over their body o Abortion 1968 o Year of Turmoil Vietnam Uprisings Shown on National television Openly criticized the war Students—New Hampshire primary Peace talks began in Paris Martin Luther King Walk on Washington Killed by white Assassin Protests Columbia University Robert F Kennedy Assassinated Protest Hubert Humphrey presidential nomination Chicago 8 Overturned on appeal Bias on the Judge Kent State Uprising protest Violent UC Berkeley Violent protests Segregated South Inequality o Redeemers in Power Coalition of merchants, planters, and businessmen… (Picture) Worked to reverse reconstructions Increase punishment for petty crimes Allowed for rise in convict labor Prison population exploded African citizens Labor unions assailed Black men couldn’t join union Populism’s defeat in the South allowed for the imposition of a new racial order The Redeemers, a coalition of merchants, planters, and businessmen who ruled the region after 1877 and claimed to have “redeemed” the south from the corruption and horrors of “black rule,” worked to reverse Reconstruction’s achievements They reduced taxes and public spending, and cut back public schools, which especially hurt blacks New laws allowed the arrest of those without employment and increased punishment for petty crimes As the South’s prison population rose, convicts, mostly poor blacks, were rented out to railroad, miners, and lumber companies as cheap, involuntary labor, at a high profit Labor unions in the South assailed the convict labor system. o Failure of the New South Dream Planters, merchants prospered Area as a whole become more poverish Small towns had small industry South relied on North for manufactured goods In the 1880s, Atlanta editor Henry Grady relentlessly promoted the dream of a New South in which industrialization and agricultural diversification would deliver prosperity to the region While planters, merchants, and industrialists prospered, the region as a whole became more impoverished While mining and textiles developed in some areas, the region’s low wages and taxes and convict labor did not spur much economic development By 1900, except for the major iron and steel city of Birmingham, Alabama, southern cities had little industry and mostly exported cotton, tobacco, and rice The South as a whole stayed dependent on the North for capital and manufactured goods Work and Movement o Black life in the South African farmers hurt the most Upper South-mines, mills, and tobacco farms Deep South- 1% of all African American owned land African American men weren’t skilled occupations African American women worked for domestic and wage work Black farmers, the most disadvantaged rural southerners, suffered the most from the region’s economic condition In the Upper South, mines, iron mills, and tobacco factories offered some jobs to black workers, and some black farmers owned land In the rice kingdom of coastal South Carolina and Georgia, the plantations went to ruin, and many blacks acquired land and became self-sufficient farmers In most of the Deep South, however, blacks owned a smaller percentage of land in 1900 than they had in the late 1870s In southern cities, institutions such as schools, churches, businesses, and clubs created by blacks during Reconstruction formed the basis of dynamic black urban communities But the labor market was racially divided, and black men were excluded from skilled and professional occupations, while black women were limited to wage work as domestic servants, and were excluded from occupations open to white women Most unions in the South excluded blacks from membership o Kansas Exodus Named after Jewish movement away from slavery Expansion took place in Northern citizens but wouldn’t allow A. A. citizens take positions Blacks, trapped at the bottom of an economically stagnant South, migrated by the tens of thousands In 1879 and 1880, nearly 60,000 African-Americans moved to Kansas, seeking political rights, safety, and education and economic opportunity Its participants called the move the Exodus, named after the biblical account of the Jews’ flight from slavery in Egypt But despite worsening conditions, most blacks had no choice but to stay in the South While economic expansion took place in northern cities, most employers there offered jobs only to white migrants from rural areas and European immigrants, not blacks Only in World War I did jobs open up for blacks, helping spur a massive movement northward called the Great Migration Government o Decline of Black Politics Tried to eliminate A.A. voting S. Democrats- Limit A.A. political power Still held office A.A. women- Political leaders- NACW-1896 National Association of Colored Women A.A. resisted Democratic Power Despite Redemption, blacks continued to hold office and vote in the South after 1877 Even while Democrats restructured southern politics to limit blacks’ political power and representation, blacks continued to hold office in states and Congress But black political opportunities diminished in this period. Talented and ambitious black men increasingly avoided politics and entered business, law, or the church Black women became political leaders, and “respectable” middle-class black women pressed for women’s rights and racial progress through organizations like the National Association of Colored Women, formed in 1896 In some states, however, blacks continued to vote and Republicans stayed competitive with Democrats By the 1890s, however, Populist and Republican-led state governments, such as North Carolina’s, fell to racial violence and electoral fraud. o Elimination of Black Voting Blacks continued to vote 1890s- Populist and Rep. states (NC)- violence and electoral fraud 1890-1906—Laws and constant provisions to limit A.A. vote Poll Tax Literacy Tests 1940- 40% of Blacks were registered to vote North and Congress supported Jim Crow laws Suppress A.A. votes Between 1890 and 1906, every southern state enacted laws or constitutional provisions intended to eliminate the black vote Because the Fifteenth Amendment prohibited the use of race as a qualification for the suffrage, southern lawmakers designed laws that seemed color-blind, but were meant to keep blacks from voting Most popular were the poll tax (a fee citizens must pay to be eligible to vote), literacy tests, and a requirement that a voter show an “understanding” of the state constitution Although some white leaders presented disenfranchisement as a “good government” measure that would end fraud and violence in elections, it was a means for ending black participation in politics, and it worked—by 1940, only 3 percent of adult blacks in the South were registered to vote Poor and illiterate whites were also disenfranchised by these laws Disenfranchisement led to a generation of southern “demagogue” politicians who mobilized white voters by appealing to their racism And disenfranchisement could not have occurred without northern approval In 1891, the Senate defeated a proposal to protect black voting rights in the South, and the Supreme Court approved disenfranchisement laws According to the Fourteenth Amendment, any state that deprived its male citizens of the franchise was supposed to lose part of its representation in Congress, but this was not held to apply to blacks Thus, southern congressmen had far greater power than their small electorates warranted. Laws o Law of Segregation 1880s- Somewhat fluid race relations/ discrimination normal 1883- SCOTUS invalidated Civil Rights Act of 1875 Plessey vs. Ferguson- “Separate But Equal” As long as conditions were similar, black and white could be separated Alongside disenfranchisement in the 1890s, segregation was imposed throughout the South Laws and local customs that required separating the races had existed in the North before the Civil War, and during Reconstruction, southern schools and other institutions had been segregated In the 1880s, though, race relations in the South were fluid, with some railroads, theaters, and hotels admitting blacks and whites, while others discriminated In 1883, the Supreme Court invalidated the Civil Rights Act of 1875, which had outlawed racial discrimination by hotels and other public facilities, and held that the Fourteenth Amendment banned unequal treatment by state authorities, not private business In the landmark 1896 ruling Plessy v. Ferguson, the Court approved state laws requiring separate facilities for blacks and whites, arguing that segregated facilities did not discriminate as long as they were “separate but equal” o Segregation and White Dominion White facilities were always better and in better condition A.A. facilities were inferior White advantage Racial Etiquette Ex.: Black step off curb into street when white walked Revision of Master/Slave States responded to Plessy by passing laws requiring segregation in every part of southern life, in schools, hospitals, toilets, and cemeteries Despite the doctrine of “separate but equal,” facilities for blacks were either inferior or nonexistent Segregation was an important part of a system of white supremacy in the South, in which each part, such as disenfranchisement, economic inequality, and inferior education, reinforced the others Segregation did not so much keep races apart as ensure that whites would have the advantage wherever they did meet A racial social etiquette developed, in which blacks had to give way to whites on sidewalks and could not raise their voices at whites or otherwise be assertive. Violence o Rise of Lynching Africans who challenged segregation 50% of Africans were lynched or killed by the mob Punishment of lynching was very little to none Preserve white womanhood Keep black males away from white women Unknown as a phenomenon elsewhere in the world Originated in the Civil War (named after guy who founded Lynchburg, VA) Originally used whites but later became a racial issue Ida B. Wells 1892- Rape accusations hit all time high (Black male) Activist for lynching using statistics Dismembered lynch victims were used as family heirlooms Passed down from generation to generation Blacks who challenged white supremacy or refused to accept the indignities of segregation faced political and legal power and immediate violent reprisal. In each year between 1883 and 1905, more than fifty persons, most of them black, were lynched (killed by a mob) in the South Lynching continued well into the twentieth century. Some were secret, others were public and promoted by organizers and the media Lynching often resulted in atrocities against the victims, and law enforcement rarely prevented lynching or punished lynches Many victims were accused of having raped or assaulted white women, an allegation often without basis But many white southerners considered preserving white womanhood a sufficient basis for extrajudicial murder Lynching is virtually unknown as a phenomenon anywhere else in the world. o Politics, Religion, and Memory Extra Legal Local Justice “Being first class was a privilege not a right” Control of white women’s sexuality Desexualized women White and individual purity The reconciliation of the North and South in the 1880s and 1890s came at the cost of widespread hopes for racial equality that had existed during and after the Civil War In popular literature and at veterans’ reunions, the war came to be remembered as a tragic quarrel between brothers, in which blacks had played no role, and which had been caused by clashes over states’ rights and the preservation of the Union, not slavery Reconstruction came to be universally seen as a period of black misrule imposed on the South by the North, a view which legitimized disenfranchisement and segregation in the South Southern governments and schools celebrated the “Lost Cause” of the Confederacy and condemned the evils of Reconstruction Even as northern Protestants abandoned the concern for racial justice and turned to sectional reconciliation, southern churches played a role in keeping the idea of the “Old South” alive by refusing to reunite with northern branches Nationwide, textbooks emphasized images of “happy slaves,” and black troops fighting in the Civil War was all but forgotten, and at times when black veterans sought to participate in memorials they were met with violence from whites Redrawing the Boundaries Self-Help o Emergence of Booker T. Washington Social movements that helped to expand nineteenth- century boundaries of freedom now revised their goals so they could be achieved in the new economic and intellectual environment Some black leaders, for example, started to emphasize self-help and individual self-advancement into middle-class America as an alternative to politics Booker T. Washington symbolized this change in black life. In 1895, Washington delivered a speech at the Atlanta Cotton Exposition urging blacks to accommodate segregation and cease agitation for civil and political rights He founded the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama, a center for vocational training (education for jobs, not broad liberal arts), as he believed obtaining farms and skilled work was more important than full citizenship for blacks He told a white audience in Atlanta, “In all things that are purely social, we can be as separate as the fingers, yet one as the hand in all things essential to mutual progress” Whites who wanted a docile labor force that would not form unions and work cheaply embraced his vision, while many blacks supported him from a belief that direct assaults on white power were failures and that blacks should build up their own communities Postcards-profit Images of lynched and killed slaves o Sold in drugstores, pharmacies Jess Washington, 1916, TX o Spectacle (thousands of people) to watch him being tortured White people spectators First class o Dark Ages Populism Economic Instability Depressions in 1873 and 1886 Real Wages in most sectors had increased, but other factors dampened optimism o Technological Changes o Immigration labor Farm laborers wages decreased since 1860s o Debt transportation Hit the Farmers the Hardest o Machinery becomes more advanced o Loans for new equipment o Loss of Jobs through change in technology o Extreme Weather (Droughts, floods, snow storms) Workers opposed capitalistic advances Granges Northwestern Alliance o Founded in 1880s o Northern Plains o Cooperative purchasing o Politics Southern Alliance o Southwest Texas, Oklahoma o Democratic Party o Expand Currency o Govt ownership of the railroads Tom Watson Southern Populist to create a political organization Racial issues of black laborers Lynching/hanging protested People’s Party Convention, Omaha 1892 Built relationships between opposing sides Agrarian Manifesto Sub-treasury system or its equivalent to provide a safe and sound legal tender Free and unlimited coinage of silver Graduate income tax Govt ownership of railroads, telegraph, and telephones Reversion of lands held by railroads and other corporations to national domain for occupation by settlers Implementation of Australian ballot Adoption of the initiative, referendum, and recall Direct election of US senators Election, 1892 Grover Cleveland (D) o 62% Harrison (R) o 33% Weaver (P) o 8% Election, 1896 William Jennings Bryan William McKinley (51%) First party to embrace women and believe they made important leaders Very Modern Technology (Postal and Telegraph) Communication (Postal Service) Media (Local and National Papers) Reformers Resistance Believed in stronger federal Govt o Social, political, economic, cultural issues Capitalistic Cooperation o Federal Govt should take part in consolidation of capital (railroads) Children and Labor o Only 24 states had working age minimums Origins of Populism Largely an agrarian movement and was centered in regions with strong ties to age culture (North and South) Founded in 1891 Political doctrine that supports the rights and powers of the common people in their struggle with the privileged elite Grassroots Movement 1886—Wisconsin—Leaders were all aligned with labor o Union Labor Party 1888—Mississippi—Alliance between national egg party and southern farmers alliance o Consolidate two parties with a new name—Farmer’s and Laborer’s Union of America o Merger ratified o Merger United many but no black with cultural background Scientific Racism—Exclude racial and ethnic minorities Populism and Labor Structures of ratifications above National Party arises Move toward consolidations Terrance Powderly-Knights of Labor o Unions o Strikes Homestead Pullman People’s Party=Populist Party Women and Populism Mary E. Lease o Irish immigrant lived in Michigan and moved to Kansas o Married a pharmacist o Speaker of the Irish national League o Farming Ventures in Texas Failed o Panic of 1873 Lost everything o Knights of Labor and the Populist Leader and Speaker “Raise less corn, and more hell” Motivate political action o Speak out against social justice issues Suffrage Temperance (Prohibition) o Against high mortgage rates and railroad fees o Emotional Speaker o Include women as equal partners “Seen as equal but still couldn’t vote” o Fought hard for women’s rights o Promoted Temperance o Female Suffrage o Faced Discrimination o Petticoat Smut Mill and Virago Strong Woman (Amazon) Leaders of their society o Opposed fusion with Democrats o Lease and other “Anti-Fusionists” like Tom Watson (South) lost o Convention name William Jennings Bryan as nominee o By 2896—declares her support of Socialism Omaha Platform 1892 (Some, not all) Silver Standard Govt ownership and railroads/telegraphs Graduated Income Tax th Direct Election of Senators (17 Amendment) Referendum and Recall Populist makes up left sides of both the Republican and Democratic sides The Cold War, 1945—1953 On September 16, 1947, the 160th anniversary of the Constitution’s signing, the Freedom Train opened to the public in Philadelphia The train, containing dozens of the most significant historical documents in American History, including the Declaration of Independence and the Gettysburg address, toured the nation Visitors were asked to affirm American ideals by taking a Freedom Pledge and signing a Freedom Scroll More than 3.5 million visited the train, and even more attended the educational programs and parades that accompanied it Beneath the surface of the train’s exhibits lay conflict over the meaning of American freedom Archivists who proposed the initial list of documents for the train intended to include the Wagner Act, which granted workers the right to organize unions, and President Roosevelt’s Four Freedoms speech, in which he articulated “freedom from want” The conservative American Heritage Foundation, to which the Truman administration had given the train, eliminated these documents from the exhibit The foundation also would not include the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments, which had established equal and civil political rights regardless of race during Reconstruction The train did not mention unions or social welfare, and only a few documents, such as the Emancipation Proclamation and Thirteenth Amendment (which outlawed slavery), spoke to black Americans’ History The train showed how the Cold War affected America Just before the train opened to the public, President Truman declared that the United States would adopt a policy of containing Soviet power across the world, and that disloyal Americans would be removed from government jobs Government officials soon praised the train for contributing to the fight against communist subversion, and the FBI even reported on those who criticized the exhibit The Freedom Train’s History shows how the Cold War transformed freedom by imbuing it with anti-communism, advocacy for “free enterprise,” and support for the status quo in American society Origins of the Cold War United States and USSR o Two Powers After World War II, the United States possessed enormous industrial capacity, the largest navy and air force (the army was demobilized), and the only atomic bomb in the world This made it the most powerful nation on Earth. Roosevelt had wanted to avoid a return to the isolationism of the post–World War I era and believed the United States should lead efforts to establish cooperation, democracy, and prosperity across the globe, in part through new institutions such as the World Bank and United Nations U.S. leaders believed that America’s security depended on stability in Europe and Asia and that American prosperity required the rebuilding of economies worldwide The chief obstacle to American leaders’ visions for the postwar world seemed to be the Soviet Union, whose victorious military occupied much of eastern Europe and eastern Germany The Soviet Union’s triumph over Germany and its claim that communism modernized Russia appealed to colonized peoples who desired national independence, and like the United States, the USSR intended to reshape the world in its own image Though Americans knew the Soviet military was too weak to directly threaten the United States, they accurately recognized Soviet intentions to dominate eastern Europe o Roots of Containment The wartime alliance between the United States and the Soviet Union was formed only to defeat Hitler Clashes between American and Soviet interests and values were bound to resurface after the war The Cold War’s first event occurred in the Middle East, where Soviet troops occupied parts of northern Iran with rich oil fields Pressured by Britain and the United States, the Soviets withdrew troops from Iran but simultaneously installed procommunist governments in Poland, Romania, and Bulgaria, a move they compared to U.S. domination in Latin America To many Americans, Stalin seemed to violate his promise at Yalta for free elections in Poland Soon thereafter, U.S. diplomat George Kennan, in his famous Long Telegram, told the Truman administration that communist ideology made the Soviet government inherently and permanently aggressive Only America, he wrote, could prevent the extension of Soviet communist rule in the world This was the basis for the policy of “containment,” in which the United States aimed to check all Soviet attempts to expand its power in the world Containment o Iron Curtain Churchill Iron Curtain had fallen over Europe Dividing free west and communist east In a speech in Missouri, former British prime minister Winston Churchill declared that an “iron curtain” had fallen over Europe, dividing the free West from the communist East This reinforced emerging beliefs that a long-term struggle between the United States and the Soviets was at hand In March 1947, Truman announced that the United States was now engaged in a global conflict with the Soviet Union This new policy came to be called the Truman Doctrine When he became FDR’s vice president in 1944, Truman was an obscure senator from Missouri with little foreign policy experience, and as president he soon faced daunting foreign policy challenges He did not trust Stalin and believed the United States had to assume world leadership Truman decided to embrace containment when Britain signaled it could no longer afford military aid to Greece, where a monarchy faced a communist-led revolt, and to Turkey, where the Soviets wanted joint control of the crucial straits linking the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Britain asked America to step in Though unrest in Greece and Turkey was mostly homegrown and incited by corrupt and undemocratic governments, these states were strategically important as doors to southern Europe and the oil- rich Middle East o Truman Doctrine US had to assume world leadership Bipartisan backing for containment Committed US for responsibility in the world Administration created security agencies To win Congress’s support for containment, Truman was told to frighten the American populace, and he repeatedly invoked the nation’s responsibility to defend freedom at home and abroad Truman’s rhetoric laid the framework for how Americans viewed the postwar world, and it became the “guiding spirit of American foreign policy” Republican and Democratic support for Truman’s policy initiated a long period of bipartisan backing for containment And his speech showed the extent to which the Cold War was an ideological conflict, in which both powers claimed their social system was a model for other nations and that they advanced freedom and social justice while defending their own security Congress’s approval of military aid to Turkey and Greece rescued these governments and checked Soviet power Truman’s speech and policy committed the United States to a permanent responsibility in the world and set a precedent both for U.S. support of undemocratic, anticommunist regimes and for the creation of military alliances against the Soviets The Truman administration soon established new “national security” agencies, such as the National Security Council and Central Intelligence Agency, which were removed from congressional oversight o Marshall Plan Containment helped by spending lots of money 1942—Spend billions of dollars to help Europeans reconstruction Feared the rest of Europe would become communist Domino Effect Gave a positive sight of containment New Deal for Europe Established mass industry Production preceded before the war GATT- More free trade and more markets Checking Communist Aggression o Berlin Blockade and North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) West Berlin—isolated city surrounded by East Berlin communism US, Canada—NATO Hoped it would prevent future German aggression 1949—Chinese communist won the civil war in their country NFC58 Slay of the Soviets The Cold War rapidly intensified At the end of World War II, each winning power occupied and administered parts of Germany and its capital, Berlin, which was located far inside the Soviet zone In June 1948, when the United States, Britain, and France started a process that would lead to a new West German government allied with them, the Soviets responded by blocking all traffic from the American, British, and French zones to the city Western planes began an 11-month airlift of supplies to West Berlin. Stalin lifted the blockade, but two nations—East and West Germany—took form, each allied with a side in the Cold War, and Berlin stayed divided West Berlin survived as an isolated city surrounded by communist East Germany, and only in 1991 was Germany reunified In 1949, the Soviet Union also first tested an atomic bomb, thus ending the U.S. monopoly on nuclear arms That year the United States, Canada, and 10 nations in western Europe created the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), a mutual defense pact in the event of Soviet aggression in Europe Many Europeans applauded when West Germany joined NATO, because they hoped it would prevent future German aggression and defend against Soviet advances In turn, the Soviets in 1955 formed the Warsaw Pact, their own military alliance in Eastern Europe o Growing Communist Challenge Also in 1949, Chinese communists led by Mao Zedong won the civil war in that country, dealing a heavy blow to U.S. containment policy The Truman administration, criticized by Republicans for having “lost” China to communism, did not recognize the new People’s Republic of China and prevented it from taking its seat in the United Nations Until the 1970s, the United States defended the exiled regime in Taiwan as China’s legitimate government In 1950, the National Security Council responded to the growing tensions in Germany, China’s new government, and the Soviet atom bomb with a policy of permanent military armament The document expressing this new policy, called NSC-68, depicted the Cold War as an epochal conflict between “the idea of freedom” and the “slavery” of the Soviets that would determine whether the “free world” survived NSC-68 spurred monumental increases in military spending Korea o Korean War Two governments North Korea invade the South Truman seen invasion as a violation of US containment Sent troops 33,000 Americans soldiers died 1 million Korean Soldiers died 2 million Korean Citizens died The Cold War turned “hot” not in Europe, but in Asia In 1945, Korea was split into Soviet and American zones. These became two governments: a communist North Korea, and the anticommunist and democratic South Korea, aligned with America In June 1950, North Korean troops invaded the South in an attempt to unify the peninsula under communist rule, and they nearly conquered all of South Korea Truman interpreted the invasion as a Soviet challenge to U.S. containment policy, and the UN authorized military action American troops led by General Douglas MacArthur launched a campaign that resulted in U.S. occupation of most of North Korea But in October 1950, hundreds of thousands of Chinese troops crossed the border and pushed UN forces back down the peninsula When MacArthur demanded the right to use nuclear weapons to repel the Chinese and perhaps even invade China, Truman declined. MacArthur’s refusal to recognize the president’s civilian control of the military led to his dismissal The war stalemated, and in 1953, an armistice left the two prewar nations intact without any formal peace treaty More than 33,000 Americans, 1 million Korean soldiers, 2 million civilians, and hundreds of thousands of Chinese troops died The Cold War that began in Europe now became global in scope Events since 1947 suggested that the world had not found peace, as had been hoped in 1945 when the UN was founded Instead of one world living in harmony, the world was split between the United States, which led what became known as the West (including Japan), or the “Free World” The United States formed more military alliances in Southeast Asia and the Middle East, effectively surrounding the Soviet Union and China Criticism o Cold War Critics Stalin’s rule had killed millions George Keenan US leaders should avoid ideological decisions Decolonization 1946—Gave Philippines their independence Repressive governments were included in Free World, as long as they weren’t communism In the Soviet Union, Stalin’s brutal regime had jailed or murdered millions Its authoritarianism made the Soviet Union seem antithetical to “free enterprise” and democracy But some Americans argued that approaching the Cold War as a titanic struggle between freedom and slavery was problematic Even George Kennan, who inspired the containment policy, argued that U.S. leaders should avoid ideological decisions and view international crises on a case-by-case basis if they were to determine if freedom or American interests were in danger Walter Lippman condemned turning foreign policy into an “ideological crusade” that required the United States to constantly intervene abroad and violate its own ideals by allying with authoritarian anticommunist governments, many of which faced rebellions sparked by domestic problems, not Soviet subversion Lippman argued that communists were bound to be part of the movements for national independence that the United States should itself support o Imperialism and Decolonization The war elevated awareness in the United States about imperialism and decolonization, even as anticolonial movements used the Declaration of Independence to make claims for self-government Some liberals and black leaders pressed Truman to promote decolonization, and in 1946, the United States gave independence to the Philippines But the Cold War saw the United States retreat from the pressure that FDR had exerted on America’s European allies to grant sovereignty to their colonies Britain and France hoped to retain their possessions in Africa and Asia While geopolitical and economic interests influenced U.S. foreign policy as much as ideas of freedom, U.S. policymakers used the language of freedom to justify actions that seemed to contradict freedom Even extremely repressive governments were included in the “Free World” as long as they were anticommunist. One such ally was South Africa, where an apartheid regime preserved white supremacy and suppressed the black population Cold War and the Idea of Freedom American Culture o Cultural Cold War Govt pressuring Hollywood to make movies about the dangers of communism Jackson Pollack—Modern Art movement People drove up the prices on their pieces without them knowing CIA—Comes out of congressional oversight The Cold War was an ideological conflict in which both sides sought to win support across the world Freedom was central to mobilizing public opinion, and in the 1950s freedom was a prominent theme in academia, the media and mass culture, and government The Cold War set the boundaries for understanding freedom Culture and history were mobilized for the Cold War Historians argued that the American Creed of pluralism, tolerance, and equality had always defined American life, and neglected the ways in which race and ethnicity had restricted freedom The federal government pressed Hollywood to make anticommunist films, from which all references to racism were to be removed The CIA and the Defense Department patronized the arts, enlisting actors, dancers, and musicians to promote the superiority of American values at home and abroad, and sponsoring magazines and academic conferences The CIA even funded the controversial abstract expressionist art of painter Jackson Pollock, whose canvasses, created by dropping and splashing paint, were said to embody cultural freedoms absent in socialist nations o Freedom and Totalitarianism The Cold War’s other master concept was “totalitarianism” First used in World War II to describe fascist Italy and German as aggressive, ideological governments that harshly controlled all of civil society and denied the rights and alternative values that might lead to social change, totalitarianism soon came to describe the Soviet Union and its allies This concept helped spread the belief that powerful governments were the greatest threat to freedom Whatever the Soviet Union supported was automatically deemed antithetical to freedom The American Medical Association launched the largest public relations campaign in history against Truman’s proposal for national health insurance, calling it “socialized medicine” Soviet hostility to organized religion automatically made Christian worship a bastion of freedom Human Rights o Rise of Human Rights LGBT rights Formation of UN defines human rights on a global scale 1948—Adopted Universal Declaration of Human Rights—Rights of Speech and Religion Housing, education, healthcare Russia declined The Cold War also shaped the idea of human rights World War II’s atrocities and the Four Freedoms and Atlantic Charter sparked calls for a new global order ruled by universal rights for all of humanity The war crimes trials of German officials showed that the international community would hold individuals accountable for violations of human rights In 1948, the UN General Assembly adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), which declared that all people should have basic rights to freedom of speech and religion, should be free from arbitrary government, and should enjoy social and economic entitlements such as housing, education, health care, and an adequate standard of living Though the document could not be enforced anywhere, its assertion that governments were accountable for the way they treated their citizens became widely accepted o Ambiguities of Human Rights Debates over the UDHR showed the contradictions and tensions in the idea of human rights How much human rights should supersede national sovereignty, and who or what should protect the human rights that governments violate, are still unsettled questions Both the United States and the Soviet Union resisted the creation of a mechanism to enforce the UDHR because they feared outside interference in domestic and foreign policy American leaders were particularly sensitive about race relations, which they feared might invite UN action against the United States In the 1950s, Cold War considerations limited human rights and both America and the Soviet Union used human rights for their own interests The USSR claimed to provide its citizens with social and economic rights, while the United States criticized the Soviets for violating democratic rights and civil liberties Only in 1992 did Congress ratify the part of the UDHR that covers “Civil and Political Rights”; it has not yet ratified the declaration’s “Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights” Truman Presidency Economics o Fair Deal Faced task of shifting America from war to peace GI benefits—Veterans Build or buy homes or go to college Revive New Deal politics Raise living standards Increase public housing, social security After the war, President Truman faced the monumental task of shifting America from war to peace The more than 12 million men still in the military in 1945 wanted to return to their families and jobs, and demobilization occurred rapidly While some veterans found civilian life difficult, others used GI Bill benefits to build or buy homes, start small businesses, and go to college Most veterans went into the labor force, taking jobs from more than 2 million women workers The government dismantled wartime agencies that regulated industry and labor and set price controls, which sparked immediate inflation Backed by Democratic liberals and unions, Truman in 1945 tried to revive New Deal politics with a program he eventually called the “Fair Deal” This would improve the social safety net and raise living standards Truman pressed Congress to hike the minimum wage, create a national health insurance system, and increase public housing, Social Security, and educational aid Strikes and Republicans o Postwar Strike Wave 1946—Labor Revolt AFL/CIO Income dropped drastically Steel Workers revolt Truman hostile to the Unions The year 1946 was one of labor revolt The AFL and CIO launched Operation Dixie to bring unions to the South and end the anti-labor conservatism of southern politics, sending hundreds of labor organizers into the region’s textile mills, steel factories, and fields With no more overtime work for war production, and skyrocketing inflation caused by the end of price controls, workers’ real income dropped sharply Workers responded by going on strike to demand wage raises—5 million of them 750,000 steel workers conducted the largest single strike in U.S. history up to that point The strike wave alarmed President Truman, who became hostile to the unions and won an injunction to force striking coal miners back to work o Republican Resurgence In the 1946 elections, middle-class voters scared by labor unrest voted Republican, and many workers angry at Truman’s policies stayed at home The Democrats lost both houses of Congress to the Republicans for the first tim
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