Human Sexuality PSY 4346
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by imani hicks on Monday February 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 4346 at University of Texas at Dallas taught by Vanessa Miller in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Human Sexuality in Psychlogy at University of Texas at Dallas.
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Date Created: 02/22/16
Ch.1 & Class Lecture Notes #1 Ch.1 1. Sexuality in Perspective “An individual engages in sexual activity on the basis of a complex set of motivations and organizes that activity on the basis of numerous external factors and influence.” (p. 2 textbook) What 2. Sex and Gender Sex refers to sexual anatomy and sexual behavior Gender refers to the state of being male or female Sexual behavior produces an arousal and increases the chance of orgasm 3. Understanding Sexuality: Religion Christians believed wet dreams resulted from sexual intercourse from tiny creatures called incubi and succubi Muslims believe sexual intercourse is one ogf the finest pleasures of life, reflecting the teaching of the great prophet Muhammad Greeks- Heterosexuals came frm the splitting of male and female Homosexuals from the splitting of a double male or double female Until about 100 years ago, religion provided most of the information people had about sexuality People of different religions hold different understandings of human sexuality These religious views often have a profound impact 4. Understanding Sexuality: Science The dutch microscopist Anton Van Leeuwenhoek discovered sperm swimming in human semen. The actual sexual behavior of Victorian people were sometimes in violation of societal norms Oskar Hertwig first observed the actual fertilization of the egg by sperm in sea urchis, the human ovum was observed in the 20 century Henry Havelock Ellis ,physician in England, believed sexual deviations from the norm are often harmless, he urged society to accept them. Magus Hirschfeld, founded the first sex research institute and administered the first large scale sex survey, obtaining data from 10,000 people on 130 item questionnaire.Also, established the first journal devoted to the study of sex, established marriage counseling service, worked for legal reforms, ad gave advice o contraception and sex problems. HE was a homosexual transvestite, introduced the term tranvestitie. Alfred Kinsey made major brekthroughs with Masters and johnsons investigations of sexual disorders and the physiology of sexual response Psychiatrist Richard von Krafft- Ebbing , coined sadism, masochism, and pedophilia, heterosexuality, homosexuality; interest was mainly pathological sex Scientific study of sex began in the 19th century Major breakthroughs in the scientific understanding of sex - Alfred Kinsey - Masters and Johnson The scientific study of sexuality is a joint effort by biologists, psychologists, anthropologists, and physicians 5. The Media American adolescents spend 11 hours per day with some form of mass media The Internet is the newest most powerful mass media influence The average american’s sexual views are more likely to be influenced by mass media than scientific findings - Cultivation - Agenda setting - Social Learning Cultivation refers to the notion that people begin to think that what they see on television and in other media represents the mainstream of what happens in our culture agenda setting News reporters set what to report , what to ignore, and what to emphasize. Social learning-characters on television, in the movies, or in romance novel may serve as models whom we imitate, perhaps without even realizing it 6. Important Sex Researchers Sigmund Freud - Psychoanalysis, Dreams, Repression Henry Havelock Ellis - Sexual Reformer, Men & Women are both Sexual Is this Healthy? Adevious and insincere world in which middle-class husbands slaked their lust by keeping mistresses, frequenting prostitutes, or molesting children, while their wives, timid, dutiful, obedient, were sexually anesthetic and poured all of their capacity for love into their housekeeping and child-rearing (Gay, 1984, p.6) 7. Important Sex Researchers Richard von Krafft-Ebing - Pathological Sexuality, Coined ‘Sadism’, ‘Masochism’, and ‘Pedophilia’ Magnus Hirschfeld-Large scale survey, coined ‘Transvestite’ Alfred Kinsey Masters and Johnson – Investigations of sexual disorders and the physiology of the sexual response 8. Cross - Cultural Perspectives on Sexuality Sexual rights are the inalienable, basic rights all humans have regarding sexuality, both positive and negative. Sexual health is a social and political movement that is gaining momentum worldwide. The non sexual uses of sexual behavior , - Prostitutes use sexual behavior for economic purposes - Animals will mount each other to show dominance, this is using sexual behavior for something on sexual Huma uniqueness, in lower species sex is controlled mainly by hormones or instinct in higher species its controlled by the brain. Elaborate, cultural influences are unique. Sexual signaling such as flirting or parading occur in animals Masturbation and homosexuality are found in animals too Sexual behavior varies among ethnic groups - Sexual factors that influence blacks : the Africa heritage, the forces that acted upon blacks during slavery, and current economic and social conditions - Latinos, machoism – maleness; Latinas, marianismo – virginity and motherhood. Familismo- family - Japanese – collectivism – other’s needs. Conformity to norms, and emotional control - Native American people had strict regulations on premarital sex Culture – traditional ideas and values transmitted to a group which influence patterns of behavior Ethnocentrism - Tendency to regard one’s own culture as superior - Belief that its own customs are the standard by which other cultures should be judged All societies regulate sexual behavior in some way Incest taboos - regulations prohibiting sexual interaction between blood relatives are nearly universal Condemnation of forced sexual relations Societies respond differently to: - Abortions – the percentage of conceptions that are terminated inAmerica rises steadily - sexual techniques - masturbation - premarital sex - extramarital sex ranks second after incest as the most strictly prohibited type of sexual contact - sex with same-gendered partners occurs in a variety of cultures, homosexual behavior is neve the dominat sexual behavior - standards of attractiveness , in most societies a poor complexion is considered unattractive 9. Significance of the Cross-Cultural Studies Most groups in society have restrictions on premarital intercourse Inflicting pain on the partner is a sexual technique in some societies Kissing is one of the most common sexual techniques. Indicates the enormous variation in human sexual behavior Places personal standards and behavior in perspective Provides evidence concerning the importance of culture and learning in the shaping of sexual behavior African Azande woman might be beaten severely for masturbating if her husband catches her In Lesu of the south pacific there is no disapprovalof dult female masturbation 10. Understanding Sexuality: The Media The Internet is the newest and perhaps the most powerful mass media influence 11. The Sexual Health Perspective Sexual health is a state of physical, emotional, mental, and social well-being in relation to sexuality For sexual health to be attained and maintained, the sexual rights of all persons must be respected, protected, and fulfilled (World Health Organization 2002) 12. Handout Perspectives 3 Major Perspectives - Evolutionary - Psychological - Sociological * Note: Each major perspective contains sub-theories
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