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February 16th & 18th Notes

by: Alyssa Shriver

February 16th & 18th Notes Bio 102

Alyssa Shriver
GPA 2.7

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These notes cover what's on exam 2
Introduction to Biology
Dr. Jeremy Chandler
Class Notes
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alyssa Shriver on Monday February 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 102 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Dr. Jeremy Chandler in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Biology in Biology at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.


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Date Created: 02/22/16
February 16, 2016 Environments of prokaryotes, classification and the eukaryotic explosion  How do microbes acquire the building blocks of biomass?  All of Earth’s life­forms are based on carbon, which they acquire in different ways o Autotrophs­ fix carbon and assemble into organic molecules (mainly  sugars). (Make their food from non living material in the environment) o Heterotrophs­ use preformed organic molecules. (Rely on other  organisms as their food sources) Descriptive prefixes  Chemo­ obtains energy from chemicals in the environment  Photo­ uses light energy to harvest chemical compounds  Modes of Nutrition   Plant: Photoautotrophs   Bacteria: Chemoautotrophs   Rhodopseudomonas: Photoheterotrophs  Kingfisher: Chemoheterotrophs  Bacterial Autotrophs  Cyanbacteria o Largest group o In oceans, freshwater, exposed rocks and soil o Photosynthesize o Oldest photosynthetic organisms o Some perform nitrogen fixation   Conversion of atmospheric nitrogen into a form that plants can use  for growth  Do not all rely on sunlight  Some obtain energy from geological sources o Inorganic gases of hydrothermal vents Myxococcus xanthus  Fruiting bodies for survival  Survival­Endospores  Thought to remain in vegetative states indefinitely until conditions are favorable  for growth   Positive purple  Negative pink  The cyanobacterium Spirulina  It has high carotene concentrations, giving it a distinct pink color  A major food for the pink flamingo  Limits of Growth   The “normal” growth condition are: o Sea level o Temperature 20C­40C o Neutral pH o 0.9% salt, and ample nutrients o Any ecological niche outside this window is called “extreme”, and  organisms inhabiting them are called extremophiles Some Bacteria Are Highly Resistant to Extreme Environmental Threats  Deinococcus Radiodurans o Nickname “Conan the bacterium” o Has the greatest ability to survive radiation of any known organism o Has exceptional capabilities for repairing DNA damaged by radiation  o Was genetically engineered for use in bioremediation  Philes in Classificiations  A lover of or enthusiast of.. word preceeding it   In microbial life often coincides with a peak in growth rate  Archaea  Similar to bacteria  Lack a nucleus  Genetically distinct  “Extremophiles” o Hyperthermophiles  Live in extremely hot places o Methanogens  Live in oceans hypothermal vents o Halophiles  Live in places with high salt content  Microbes Classified by Temperature   Microorganisms can be classified by their growth temperature o Psychrophiles 0­20 degrees C o Mesophiles 15­45 degrees C o Thermophiles 40­80 degrees C o Hyperthermophiles 65­121 degrees C  All of these organisms have evolved membranes and proteins best suited for  their temperatures   Microbes in your stomach are classified as Mesophiles  Majority of Earth’s atmosphere is cold Cold microbes have adaptation that allows them to survive. We can adapt these abilities for ourselves   Microbes that protect themselves from ice  Microbes that use ice to get into plants  Acidophiles Neurtrophiles Alkaliphiles  Aerobes and Anaerobes  Strict aerobes can only grow in oxygen   Strict anaerobes die in the least bit of oxygen  Facultative anaerobes can live with or without oxygen   They possess both the ability for fermentative metabolism and respiration  (anaerobic and aerobic) If a microorganism does not have a catalase positive, what might this tell you about their environment?  It lives in an anaerobic environment  Anaerobic reactions between sulfur and iron cause hidden hazards for human  technology, such as the corrosion of steel in underwater bridge supports  In anaerobic conditions, sulfur­reducing bacteria can corrode iron Other specialized structures­ Cyanobacterial Heterocysts   Anabaena differentiates into specialized cells called heterocysts o Allow it to fix nitrogen anaerobically while maintaining oxygenic  photosynthesis  o Nitrogen fixation from N2 is solely performed by bacteria  Microbial Ecology  Sergei Winogradsky was among the first to study bacterial in natural habitats  Discovered lithotrophs  Developed enrichment cultures  Built the Winogradsky column   Winogradsky and other showed the importance of bacterial in geochemical  cycling  Important Dates   4.5 billion years ago­ origin of Earth  3.5 billion years ago prokaryotes dominate  2.5 billion years ago­ oxygen accumulates (photosynthesis)  2.1 billion years ago­ eukaryotes first nucleated cells (single­celled)  1.2 billion years ago­ first multi­celled eukaryotes  .5 billion years ago­ Cambrian explosion of multicellular life  Eukaryotic Diversity  Eukaryote o Organism with cells characterized by membrane­enclosed nucleus and  organelles   Protists o Eukaryote that cannot be classified as a plant, animal, or fungus o Usually unicellular o Some are heterotrophic o Ancestral to all other eukaryotes o Algae  Protozoans  Protozoans with flagella are called flagellates and  Are typically free­living, but o Some are nasty parasites   Amoebas are characterized by  o Great flexibility in their body shape and o The absence of permanent organelles for locomotion  o Most species move and feed by the means of pseudopodia (singular,  pseudopodium), temporary extensions of the cell  Cell Shape and Movement  Cilia may extend from nonmoving cells  On cells lining the human trachea, cilia help sweep mucus with trapped debris  out of the lungs  Cilia are not found in prokaryotes  Today’s Objectives   Practice classifying organisms based on their carbon and energy sources on  your own   Explain other descriptive terms around “philes, tolerant, and sensitive” organisms  Explain how we classify the various extremophiles we mentioned in class based  on environments they inhabit  Explain the role of catalase in oxygenic systems  Explain endosymbiosis and what evidence we have to support it   Explain some classifications of protists by locomotion we discussed in class  o February 18  Lecture  Primitive Eukaryotes continued and the Eukaryotic Explosion  Eukaryote o Organism with cells characterized by membrane­enclosed nucleus and  organelles  Amoebas use ___ for movement  o Pseudopodia   Algae o Algae are  Photosynthetic protists whose chloroplasts support food chains in   Freshwater rand   Marine ecosystems  Many unicellular algae are component s of plankton, the  communities of mostly microscopic organisms that drift or swim  weakly in aquatic environments o Unicellular algae include  Dinoflagellates, with  Two beating flagella, also  External plates made of cellulose  Diatoms, with glassy cells walls containing silica and   Green algae   Can you see algae from space? o Yes, example: algal blooms  Emiliania huxleyi­ diatom  o Photosynthetic plankton species covered in calcite disks  o Infected by giant viruses­ causes mass release of discs  Seaweeds o Large, multicellular marine algae, o Grow on or near rocky shores o Are only similar to plants because of convergent evolution o Are most closely related to unicellular algae and  o Are edible  o Classified into three different groups, based partly on the types of  pigments,  Green algae  Red algae  Brown algae   Slime Molds o Resemble fungi in appearance and lifestyle due to convergence, but  o Are more closely related to amoebas o The two main groups are  Plasmodial slime molds  And unicellular slime molds  o Plasmodial slime molds  Are named for the feeding stage in their cycle, and amoeboid mass  called a plasmodium,  Are decomposers on forest floors and   Can be large  Can solve complex problems with nutrients o Cellular slime molds have an interesting and complex life cycle of  successive stages:  A feeding stage of solitary amoeboid cells,  A swarming stage as a slug­like colony that can move and function as a single cell units and  A stage during which they generate a stalk­like multicellular  reproductive structure   Dictyostelium Discoideum  o Use cAMP­ a chemical messenger to coordinate activities   Cells that don’t cooperate with the slime mold group will be killed off by the  cooperating cells   The Origin of Multicellular Life o Colonial protists likely formed the evolutionary links between  Unicellular and  Multicellular organisms  Eukaryotic Diversity: Fungi o Unicellular or multicellular o Eukaryotic o Obtains nutrients by secreting digestive enzymes onto organic matter and  absorbing o Decomposers  Digest and use organic molecules in dead organisms as sources of  nutrients and energy  o Body composed of threadlike structures, hyphae o A hypha is a chain of many cells, capable of absorbing nutrients o Hyphae interweave to form mycelium o Mushrooms, mold, yeast   List some features of plants.. o Where do they get   Energy: from the sun   Carbon: photoautotrophs   Water and nutrients: from it’s roots  o Physical features/ attributes?  Eukaryotic Diversity: Plants  o Plant  Multicellular eukaryote  Has cell walls  Photosynthetic  Autotroph  Adapted  o Bryophytes  Earliest plants  Nonvascular plant  Lack roots and tissue for transporting water and nutrients  Grow only in damp environments  Does not produce seeds o Ferns  First vascular plant  No seeds  Vascular tissue keeps stems rigid  o Gymnosperms  Seed­bearing plants   “Naked” seeds  typically held in cones  o Angiosperms  Seed plants  Seeds in fruit  Flowering   Today’s Objectives o Explain some unique characteristics of slime molds, algae and fungal  organisms  Slime molds  Resemble fungi in appearance and lifestyle due to  convergence but are more closely related to amoebas  Plasmodial slime molds  o are named after the feeding stage in their life  o Are decomposers on forest floors, and can be large  Cellular slime molds: o A feeding stage of solitary amoeboid cells, o A swarming stage as a slug­like colony that can move and function as a single unit, and  o A stage during which they generate a stalk­like  multicellular reproductive structure  Algae   Photosynthetic protists whose chloroplasts support food  chains in  o Freshwater and  o Marine ecosystems  Many unicellular algae are components of plankton, the  communities of mostly microscopic organisms that drift or  swim weakly in aquatic environments   Unicellular algae include o Dinoflagellates, with   Two beating flagella and   External plates made of cellulose  o Diatoms, with glassy cell walls containing silica, and o Green algae   Fungi  Fungus o Unicellular or multicellular o Eukaryotic  o Obtains nutrients by secreting digestive enzymes onto organic matter and absorbing  o Decomposers  Digest and use organic molecules in dead  organisms as sources of nutrients and energy  o Body composed of threadlike structures, hyphae  o A hypha is a chain of many cells, capable of  absorbing nutrients o Hyphae interweave to form mycelium o Mushrooms, mold, yeast  o Read over the scientific paper discussing farming in slime molds on  blackboard o Explain the eukaryotic progression from early protists to more complex  multicellular eukaryotes o Explain some main differences between the types of plants we have  discussed thus far  Bryophytes  Lacks roots and tissue for transporting water and nutrients  Grow only in damp environments  Does not produce seeds  Nonvascular plants  Ferns  No seeds  Vascular tissue keeps stems rigid  Gymnosperms  Seed­bearing plants  “naked seeds”  typically held in cones  Angiosperms  Seed plants  Seeds in fruit  Flowering  o For next time: re­watch the sun dew video and come up with reasons the  plants knew not to eat rocks and paper. We’ll resume group work on some questions next time.


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