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Week 4

by: Tamara Girodie

Week 4 Psych 315

Tamara Girodie

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This week of notes includes: Biological and Evolutionary Systems Key Stimuli in Humans Embryo Protection Hypothesis (Fessler) Frugivory By-Product Hypothesis
Christopher Magalis
Class Notes
biological systems, evolutionary systems, Stimuli, key stimuli, embryo, embryo protection hypothesis, fessler, frugivory, frugivory by-product hypothesis
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tamara Girodie on Monday February 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 315 at Towson University taught by Christopher Magalis in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Motivation in Psychlogy at Towson University.

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Date Created: 02/22/16
Monday, February 22, 2016 Week 4 Biological/Evolutionary Systems - Goal is replication - Reproductive behavior is primed • the end goal is for us to live long enough to reproduce - Parental Investment Model - Sexual Selection - Bateman Principle • Biological females will be more choosy, while males are more typically “easy” • This is done to care for offspring - Short-term sexual strategies • High testosterone males —> promiscuity and cheating - Long-term sexual strategies • Good with kids • Help incubate the eggs (birds), perch babies on their backs (baboons), provide nesting materials (birds) - The parent who will invest the most in their offspring will be the choosiest with their partners • Biological Males - many sperm, mate with multiple females, “easy” • Does not account for cultural deviations - Arranged mariages, homosexuality - Biological models are not completely accurate • In the case of anorexics, or appetite vs hunger, sometimes food is forgone despite the need for food - Ross Buck 1 Monday, February 22, 2016 • Takes a systems approach, takes into account all systems in a theory called the prime theory • Hierarchal, you can start with the reflex theory and make your way to cultural influences - With human behavior, there are always exceptions - Biological evolutionary models have some problems when encountering caregiving for other things, such as a pet. There is reproductive advantage for that. • Could this still be about genes, but in a very roundabout way? - The need for raising young could even be the explanation for suicide - Suicide, self-harm, depression, rape, etc out all be adaptive advantages - Humans are theory makers, we are driven and motivated to find reasons • Theories are only as good as the number of testable hypothesis it produces - You can acknowledge theories, but take care to mind the exceptions Key Stimulus in Humans - Eibl Eibesfelt looked at neoteny, or the physical characteristics which mirror a human infant’s, like a disproportionately large head, large eyes, roundness - Keiting found that adults with neotenous features receive more help - Typically when humans see something “cute” they want to nurture it and care-give, however some species do have exceptions - Key stimuli are stimuli which produce stereotypical responses - Neurophysiological reactions may also occur, such as the correlated release of oxytocin when seing something neotenous • Huge amounts are released when orgasming and breastfeeding - Pheromones are hormonal, and may trigger certain responses when bound to certain receptors 2 Monday, February 22, 2016 Embryo Protection Hypothesis (Fessler) - Sickness and aversions to food during pregnancy may be explained by evolutionary psychology • Nausea tends to be associated with meats, which may contain carcinogens, parasites, and pathogens • The first trimester can be very hard on the stomach, which can help the child survive by protecting it’s important developing organs Frugivory By-Product Hypothesis - Drinking alcohol is not adaptive in itself, but a by-product of the adaptive behavior is eating ripened fruit - Ripe fruit = ethanol plumes - Can be maladaptive, as seen in alcoholism - Alcohol is poisonous, and yet we still do it - This could suggest that drinking alcohol is a by-product of evolutionary psychology 3


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